AP World History chap 19

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Slave Soldiery
based on the Islamic practice of taking artisan prisoners of war and converting them to Islam – great advantage the ottomans because of mass Christian take over
Janissaries
Enslaving Christian prisoners was an Ottoman innovation. New troops that converted to Islam and allowed for military flexibility. -\”new troops\”-slave soldiery converted to Islam -Yen Cheri (Turkish)-they couldn’t hold jobs nor marry-inferior to main classes-were a military advantage because Christians were ground soldiers with guns due to previous military practices
Devshirme
\”section\”( early 1400’s) took male children from Christian villages ( E.g.: the Balkans) – they were taught the way of the ottoman’s and their literacy-(Islam)grew to be the military or work in the palace with the sultanate
Askeri
\”military class\” a class of people who spoke osmali and belonged to people in the military/bureaucracy – completely dependent on the Sultan
Raya
-\”flock of sheep\” mass of population-Muslim, Christian, Jews – Jews since 1492 since expulsion by Spain.
Grand Viziers
trained and educated children of Christians that studied in the palace -> senior military commanders ->head of government departments->ranked Grand Vizier \”Chief Administrators
Tulip Period
(1718-1730) a sudden outburst in necessities to buy expensive tulip bulbs that attracted the Dutch from Istanbul
Harem
\” Forbidden area\” where men received visitors and women in secluded lives
Hidden Imam
Last in a series of twelve descendants of Muhammad’s son-in-law Ali, whom Shi’ites consider divinely appointed leaders of the Muslim community. Temporary rulers for Muhammad’s long lost descendant
Mansabs
in india, grants of land given in return for service by rulers of the Mughal Empire.
Rajputs
Members of a mainly Hindu warrior caste from northwest India. The Mughal emperors drew most of their Hindu officials from this caste, and Akbar I married a Rajput princess.
Divine Faith
Akbar made himself the center of government/religion with Hindu /Christian/Muslim/Sikh/Zoroastrian beliefs.
Sikhism
Began with Nanak and meditated with the Hindu and Muslim aspects, had an army named army of the pure to defend beliefs after Aurangzeb beheaded the 10th guru.
Guru
a spiritual teacher – nanak was a guru that created Sikhism as an idol
Peacock Throne
\”Symbol of Mughal grandeur\” carried off to Iran because of rivalry with invaders.
Sultan Mehmed II
(1453) \” the conqueror\” captured Constantinople – by canons smashing enormous city walls-blocked harbor to avoid sea defense – infantry assaults within city
Suleiman the Magnificent
(1520-1566) son of Salim I conquered Mamluks Syria sultanate in 1516 and 1517-\” the law giver\” commanded greatest attack on Christian Europe
Akbar
(1556-1605) Babur’s grandson – married a Rajput princess for the blend of Hindu and Muslim in government, created land grants and divine faith.
Ottoman Empire
Islamic state founded by Osman in northwestern Anatolia. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire, the Ottoman Empire was based at Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) from 1453-1922. It encompassed lands in the Middle East, North Africa, the Caucasus, and eastern Europe.
Safavid Empire
Used land grants for cavalry men -diverse languages – land power *** – downgraded navy-nomadic chieftains/ religious scholar – between government and people – shi’ism, -Turkish-ruled Iranian kingdom (1502-1722) established by Ismail Safavi, who declared Iran a Shi’ite state.
Mughal Empire
Founded by Babur(1483-1530) mostly Islamic influence and conquered northern India – flourished in it center ( Northern India)
Bosporus
In 1453 Sultan Mehmed II used cannons to bash into Constantinople’s city walls which dragged warships a high hill from the Bosporus strait to the city’s inner harbor to avoid its sea defenses.
Anatolia
-Much of S.E Europe and Anatolia was under the control of the sultans by 1402.
-a peninsula in southwestern Asia that forms the Asian part of Turkey
-Under the land-grant system, resident cavalrymen administered most rural areas in Anatolia and the Balkans
The Balkans
an area is Eastern Europe conquered by Ottomans even though it was heavily populated by Christians.
Izmir
(1580) \”a small Muslim Turkish town into a multi-ethnic, multi religious, multi-linguistic Entrepot.\”
Isfahan
Isfahan became Iran’s capital in 1598 by decree of Shah Abbas I (r. 1587-1629).
– Mosques surrounding the royal plaza here featured
Oman
Arabs from Oman in S.E Arabia captured their south Arabian stronghold at Musqat (1650) and then went on to seize Mombasa (1698), which had become the Portuguese capital in East Africa.
Batavia
the capital of the Dutch East India Company in Indonesia (present day Jakarta); was besieged by a fleet of fifty ships belonging to the sultan of Mataram, a Javanese kingdom. Dutch eventually one as the sultan was unable to get effective help form the English.
Battle of Kosovo
The battle of Kosovo was fought between the Ottomans and a force consisting of Bulgars and Serbs in 1389. This battle was an attempt by the Serbs and Bulgars to defend the Orthodox faith from the advancing Ottomans. The Ottoman victory ultimately allowed them to continue onto Constantinople
Siege/ Fall of Constantinople
-fell to the Ottoman empire when sieged by Mehmett II
-Christian to Muslim
-capital of Ottoman empire
-great achievement, good/strategic place
Siege of Vienna
failed attempt by Ottoman Empire to invade Europe, ever since Europe had to fear/keep peace with Ottoman Empire – farthest Westward advance into Central Europe of the Ottoman Empire, and of all the clashes between the armies of Christianity and Islam might be signaled as the battle that finally stemmed the previously-unstoppable Turkish forces
Patrona Halil Rebellions
this rebellion gave independence movements the opportunity to start their own states
Aya Sofya (Hagia Sophia)
Hagia Sofia of Christian Constantinople converted to the Ottoman mosque of aya Sofya.,
-Most famous example of Byzantine architecture, it was built under Justinian I and is considered one of the most perfect buildings in the world.

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