AP World History chap 14

Flashcard maker : Chad Lipe
Latin West
Historian’s name for the territories of Europe that adhered to the Latin rite of Christianity and used the Latin language for intellectual exchange in the period 1200-1500. Western Europeans ordinarily referred to themselves as \”Latins.\”The region was emerging from the economic and cultural shadow of its Islamic neighbors, setting to extend its dominance.
Three- Field System
A system of farming developed to be a more productive way of farming during medieval Europe , in which farm land was divided into three fields of equal size. 2/3 of the land was used to grow crops and the 3rd field was used to grow oats. The oats rejuvenated the soil and could be used to feed the plow horses.
Water Wheel
A mechanism that harnesses the energy in flowing water to grind grain or to power machinery. Greater efficiency came from channeling water over top of wheel; Dams ensured these wheels a steady flow of water throughout year and in France & England ocean tides where used for power.
Hanseatic League
A commercial and defensive confederation of the free towns in northern Germany /an association of trading cities in northern Europe; traded extensively in Baltic (including coasts of Prussia, newly conquered by German knights)
Guild
A medieval organization of crafts workers or trades people such as silversmiths, or of merchants that regulated business practices of its members.
Peter’s Pence
A collection taken up annually in every church in the lain West. It’s a fund/offering for the pope.
Flying buttresses
Support structure located on the exterior of gothic style cathedrals.
Scholasticism
A philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and Roman Catholic theology in the thirteenth century. Theologians sought to synthesize the newly rediscovered philosophical works of Aristotle.
Humanism/ Humanists
A renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements.Dante also influenced the literary movement of the humanists that began in his native Florence in the mid-fourteenth century. The term refers to their interest in the humanities, the classical disciplines of grammar rhetoric, poetry, history, and ethics.
Printing Press
Invented by Johann Gutenberg in 1454; first book was Gutenberg Bible; changed private and public lives of Europeans; used for war declarations, battle accounts, treaties, propaganda; laid basis for formation of distinct political parties; enhanced literacy, people sought books on all subjects
Magna Carta
This document, signed by King John of Endland in 1215, is the cornerstone of English justice and law. It declared that the king and government were bound by the same laws as other citizens of England.
Universities
Latin West was 1st part of world to establish modern universities; they are degree-gaining corporations specializing in multidisciplinary research & advanced teaching (1300-1500)
New monarchies
Historians’ term for the monarchies in France, England, and Spain from 1450 to 1600. The centralization of royal power was increasing within more or less fixed territorial limits. These were monarchies that were modernizing. Only larger or wealthy states such as England, France and Spain could produce Colonial Empires. The kings tried to make the religion, linguistics, and geography of their kingdoms homogeneous. These new monarchies expanded out of Europe for the following reasons: trade and commerce, the extension of their religion, the extension of power and glory.
English Parliament
Started by Edward i, first representative government of England, composed of 2 knights from every town, and all the noble and bishops throughout England
The Estates General
France’s Legislative body that met infrequently and was overall weak; Represented the different classes; convened for 175 years.
Thomas Aquinas
(Roman Catholic Church) Italian theologian and Doctor of the Church who is remembered for his attempt to reconcile faith and reason in a comprehensive theology.Argued that the most basic religious truths could be proved by logical argument.
Geoffrey Chaucer
English poet remembered as author of the Canterbury Tales (1340-1400)
Marco Polo
Venetian merchant and traveler. His accounts of his travels to China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade.
The Medici family
Bankers to the Pope. Controlled Florence. Great Patrons (supporters) of the Arts and Sciences. Paid for many great works of art.
The Fugger family
this family from Augsburg, Germany loaned money as part of its business and became wealthy and powerful
Dante Alighieri
Medieval Italian poet wrote Inferno and Divine Comedy. Dealt the influence of the afterlife.
Francesco Petrarch
Known as the father of Renaissance Humanism. He lived from 1304-1374 as a cleric and committed his life to humanistic pursuits and careful study of the classics. He resisted writing in the Italian vernacular except for his sonnets, which were composed to his \”lady love\” who spoke no Latin.
Erasmus of Rotterdam
scholar & humanist, regarded as \”the scholar\” of Europe & \”prince of humanists\”, NOT REALLY A REFORMER but a PROMOTER OF REFORM
Johann Gutenberg
German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468)
Giotto
An artist who led the way into realism; his treatment of the human body and face replaced the formal stiffness and artificiality that had long characterized the representation of the human body
Jan van Eyck
Flemish painter who was a founder of the Flemish school of painting and who pioneered modern techniques of oil painting (1390-1441)
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist. The most versatile genius of the Renaissance, Leonardo filled notebooks with engineering and scientific observations that were in some cases centuries ahead of their time. As a painter Leonardo is best known for The Last Supper (c. 1495) and Mona Lisa (c. 1503).
Lorenzo de Medici
\”The Magnificent\”, A leader of Florence, he used his power and wealth to become a great patron of the arts (helping to grow the Renaissance).
King Philip the fair
\”The Fair\”, Created French Parliament with the 3 estates
King John
King of England who raised taxes and punished his enemies without a trial. He is best known for being forced to sign the Magna Carta.
Joan of Arc
French heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII crowned king
Ferdinand and Isabella
During the late 15th century, they became King and Queen of a united Spain after centuries of Islamic domination. Together, they made Spain a strong Catholic nation and also provided funding to overseas exploration, notably Christopher Columbus.
The Black Death
Bubonic Plague; by 1348, this disease ravaged from Italy, Spain, and France to the rest of Europe; transmitted by fleas on rats; considered an epidemic; one in three people died; spread from Asia to middle east; people turned to witchcraft for cures; some beat themselves because they considered the disease God’s punishment; Christians blamed Jews; production declined; higher wages; inflation
The \”Fourth Crusade\”
Ends truce -Crusaders attack Christian cities to attempt to gain allies and money…it fails and the Pope is furious kills Byzantine empire
Renaissance
the period of European history at the close of the Middle Ages and the rise of the modern worldThe great period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European history
The Great Western Schism
Time when 3 popes claimed to have power and people began to loose faith in the church.
Hundred Years War
Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families. England loses and losses half of its land but that land was in France. The negative impact- France became an absolute power. Positive impact- France formed a nation-state. Ended in 1453.
Reconquest of Iberia
Reconquista, Beginning in the eleventh century, military campaigns by various Iberian Christian states to recapture territory taken by Muslims. In 1492 the last Muslim ruler was defeated, and Spain and Portugal emerged as united kingdoms.
Canterbury Tales
A collection of stories written in Middle-English by Geoffrey Chaucer at the end of the 14th century. The tales are told as part of a story-telling contest by a group of pilgrims as they travel together on a journey .
Gothic Cathedrals
Large churches originating in twelfth-century France; built in an architectural style featuring pointed arches, tall vaults and spires, flying buttresses, and large stained-glass windows.
Summa Theologica
Written by Thomas Aquinas, it is one of the most notable scholastic works of the medieval period. Aquinas’ work founded Christian belief on Aristotelian principles.
Divine Comedy
a narrative epic poem written by Dante

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