Ap World History Ch. 6 Terms

Flashcard maker : Jose Escobar
Bedouin
Nomadic pastoralists of the Arabian peninsula; culture based on camel and goat nomadism; early converts to Islam.
Shaykhs (sheiks)
Leaders of tribes and clans within bedouin society; usually men with large herds, several wives, and many children
Muhammad
Prophet of Islam; born c. 570 to Banu Hashin clan of Quryash tribe in Mecca; raised by father’s family; received revelations from Allah in 610 C.E. and there after; died in 632
Khadijah
First wife of the prophet Muhammad, who had worked for her as a trader.
Qur’an
Book composed of divine revelations made to the Prophet Muhammad between ca. 610 and his death in 632; the sacred text of the religion of Islam.
Ali
Cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad; one of orthodox caliphs; focus for Shi’a.
Umma
Community of the faithful within Islam; transcended old tribal boundaries to create degree of political unity
Zakat
Tax for charity; obligatory for all Muslims
Five Pillars
The obligatory religious duties of all Muslims; confession of faith, prayer, fasting during Ramadan, zakat, and hajj
Ramadan
Islamic month of religious observance requiring fasting from dawn to sunset
Haji
A Muslim’s pyramid to the holy city of Mecca, to worship Allah at the Ka’ba
Caliph
successor to Muhammad as political and religious leader of the Muslims
Abu Bakr
Companion of 1st muslim leader after Muhammad. Regarded by Sunni’s as the 1st caliph and rightful succesor. The Shi’ah regard him as a traitor of Muhammad. Known as best interpretter of dreams following Muhammad’s death.
Ridda Wars
Wars that followed Muhammad’s death in 632; resulted in defeat of rival prophets and some of larger clans; restored unity of Islam
Jihads
Struggle; often used for wars in defense of the faith; holy wars launched to forcibly spread the Islam faith
Nestorians
A Christian sect found in Asia; tended to support Islamic invasions of this area in preference to Byzantine rule; cut off from Europe by Muslim invasions
Uthman
Third caliph and member of Umayyad clan; murdered by mutinous warriors returning from Egypt; death set off civil war in Islam between followers of Ali and the Umayyad clan
Battle of Siffin
Fought in 657 between forces of Ali and Umayyads; settled by negotiation that led to fragmentation of Ali’s party
Mu’awiya
Leader of the Umayyad clan; first Umayyad caliph following civil war with Ali
Sunnis
Political and theological division within Islam; supported the Umayyads.
Shi’a
Also known as Shi’ites; political and theological division within Islam; followers of Ali
Karbala
Site of defeat and death of Husayn, son of Ali; marked beginning of Shi’a resistance to Umayyad caliphate
Damascus
the chosen city by the umayyad Caliphs in Syria to be their capital. they ruled from ad 661 to ad 750
Mawali
Non-Arab converts to Islam
Jizya
Head tax paid by all nonbelievers in Islamic territories
Dhimmi
Literally \”People of the Book\”; applied as inclusive term to Jews and Christians in Islamic territories; later extended to Zoroastrians and even Hindus
Hadiths
Traditions of the prophet Muhammad
Abbasid
Dynasty that succeeded the Umayyads as caliphs within Islam; came to power in 750 C.E.
Battle of the River Zab
Victory of Abbasidsover Umayyads; resulted in conquest of Syria and capture of Umayyad capital
Baghdad
Capital of Abbasid dynasty located in Iraq near ancient Persian capital of Ctesiphon
Wazir
Chief administrative official under the Abbasid caliphate; initially recruited from Persian provinces of empire.
Dhows
Arab sailing vessels with triangular or lateen sails; strongly influenced European ship design
Ayan
The wealthy landed elite that emerged in the early decades of Abbasid rule.

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