A family of languages in Africa. It was also the migration of subsistence farmers in West Africa to the south and east in search of fertile land. Drought and overpopulation led to problems with farming in West Africa.
The trade route that streches across the Sahara desert
the arabian term for the east african coast
West African group who created their language, which is spoken by over 2 million people today
Ancient Yoruba City in South-Western Nigeria
Same age, same job
groups of people related by blood or marriage
Professional oral historians who served as keepers of traditions and advisors to kings within the Mali Empire
Belief that objects, such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms and earthquakes, have human characteristics
\”the Lion Prince\”; a member of the Keita Clan; created a unified state that became the Mali Empire
Emperor of the kingdom of Mali in Africa. He made a famous pilgrimage to Mecca and established trade routes to the Middle East and gave away so much gold that the price of gold decreased 25%
A powerful state in the African interior that apparently emerged from the growing trade in gold to the East African coast; flourished between 1250 and 1350 C.E.
Successor state to Mali; dominated middle reaches of Niger valley; formed as independent kingdom under a Berber dynasty; capital at Gao; reached imperial status under Sunni Ali
the world’s largest desert (3,500,000 square miles) in northern Africa, created major trade routes from Western Africa to East
Portion of the African continent lying south of the Sahara.
Waring states that were always competing for control of trade routes and each other. established by Swahili., Many of these city-states were Muslim and very cosmopolitan.
The most powerful kingdom in central Africa, whose name means \”the dwelling of the chief\”
A kingdom in Africa close to the Golden Horn that was tribute based in its centralization of authority. It creates a lasting Christian presence in Africa.
term realating to societies such as those of sub saharan africa after the Bantu migrations that featured decentralized rule through family and kinship groups instead of strongly centralized rule.
founder of the Mali empire (r 1230-1255) also the inspiration of Sundiata, the african literary and mythological work. he won gold control.
east African city state that dominated the coast and was active in trade
Swahili city states
port cities in convienient locations in east Africa (malindi, mosambique, Zanzibar, Lamu etc) they were goverened by a king who supervised trade and organized public life
kingdom of Kongo
central African state that began trading with Portugese
Kingdom in West Africa during the 5th – 13th centuries whose rulers eventually converted to Islam. power and wealth of this kingdom were based on dominating trans-saharan trade
\”dwelling of a chief\” complex stone structures
the great zimbabwe
maginificent stone complex near modern day zimbabwe
black slaves from swahili coast; they labored under awful conditions
the zanj revolt
led by Ali bin Muhammad in 869, thousands of zanj slaves revolted and captured Basra, the most important city in mesopotamia. demonstrated that african slavery was so porminent in Muslim society
religious belief that natural things (trees, rivers, rocks) and animals have spirtual essence
intelligent people who had innate abilities to meditate between human and supernatural worlds and ask gods for help with questions or problems
a city and kingdom in northern ethiopia that was a major naval trading power
\”the glory of the kings\” an acount written about the line of rulers descending from king soloman and david
Native religions of sub-Saharan Africa
-pagans w/ diviners (Kongo, smaller societies)
-Islam (from north Africa- Ghana, Zimbabwe)
Gender relations in sub-Saharan Africa
-high honor b/c they were sources of life
-could have limited jobs (making pottery, trading, planting and harvesting crops)
– domestic work
How did Islam help facilitate trade in Africa?
– improved relations and cooperation with Muslims in northern Africa
Mansa Musa- influence on Mali?
-grand nephew of Sundiata (founder of Mali)
-ruler of Mali during high point
-wealthiest king in the world (gold)
– created strong centralized govt that outlived the Mali Empire
Bantu political structure
-Bantu political structure
-NO hierarchy/ govt officials
-male heads of families formed councils and kinship groups
How did Mali become wealthy?
-taxes on trade
What helped establish sub-Saharan trade routes?
What were the Swahili city states? What were they heavily involved in?
– east African coast
– Mogadishu, Lamu, Malindi, Momvasa, Zanzibar, Kilwa, Mozambique, Sofala
The remarkable oral tradition of sub-Saharan Africa was preserved primarily by
professional singers and griots
The story of Sundiata was about
the heroic deeds of the lion prince in establishing the Mali empire
Trade and communications networks were slower to penetrate sub-Saharan Africa compared to other regions because
there was formidable geographic barriers to overcome (Sahara desert)
The earliest Bantu migrants were
The kingdom of Kongo maintained a royal currency system based on
cowries from the Indian Ocean
The arrival of camels in Africa
quickened the pace of communication across the Sahara
Koumbi-Saleh was to the kingdom of Ghana as
Niani was to the Mali Empire
Swahili refers to the peoples of
the east African coast.
Great Zimbabwe was
a capital city built of stone
After the eleventh century, the slave trade became increasingly important in Africa because
demand for slaves in foreign markets outstripped the supply
Unlike many other religions, African religion did not concern itself with matters of
definition: Moroccan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan
significance: documented his travels, providing insight
Ali ibn Muhammad
definition: rebel slave that organized 15,000 Zanj slaves in 869 to revolt from Abbasid; Zanj Revolt was crushed in 883
significance: showed that slaves are important
definition: elongated crescent-shaped yellow fruit with soft sweet flesh
significance: promoted population growth
definition: a society that is based on the authority of kinship groups rather than on a central government
significance: brought rudimentary order
definition: Form of political organization with rule by a hereditary leader who held power over a collection of villages and towns. Less powerful than kingdoms and empires, chiefdoms were based on gift giving and commercial links
significance: helped ward off invaders
definition: Pack animals that made cross-Sahara caravans possible
significance: allowed trading through the Sahara
definition: Prosperous capital city of the kingdom of Songhai, had caravan trade routes.
significance: helped bring taxes
Kingdom of Ghana
definition: first of the great medieval trading empires of western Africa
significance: Facilitated trade
definition: Capital of Ghana which had 15,000 people with buildings of stone and more than a dozen mosques. Supported by a large number of qadi and Muslim scholars
significance: promoted trade
definition: Formed in 1240 when Sundiata took control of Ghana Empire. It controlled trade across Sahara, the South and the Niger River.
significance: promoted trade
definition: the most widely spoken Bantu languages
significance: demonstrated eastern trading
definition: African social distinctions determined by when you were born. People belonging to a certain group had certain expectations. The groups established ties transcending family or clan loyalties.
significance: helped to delegate taxes
definition: led by Ali ibn-Muhamad; 15,000 slaves revolt for 14 years until it it ceased by Abbasids in 883
significance: demonstrated the influence of slaves
definition: individuals who by virtue of their innate abilities or extensive training had the power to mediate between humanity and
significance: Basis of African religion
definition: A string of Ethiopian rulers who claimed descent from David in an attempt to add biblical authority to their rule.
significance: helped to add authority to their rule
Bantu concept in which individuals of roughly the same age carried out communal tasks appropriate for that age.
Religion emerging from Middle East in the first century C.E. holding Jesus to be the son of God who sacrificed himself on behalf of mankind.
An African musician-storyteller essential to oral storytelling tradition of sub-Saharan Africa.
Monotheistic religion of the prophet Muhammad (570-632); influenced by Judaism and Christianity, Muhammad was considered the final prophet because the earlier religions had not seen the entire picture; the Qu’ran is the holy book of Islam.
City-state on the east coast of Africa that exported gold across the Indian Ocean.
Kingdom of Kongo
Kingdom dominating small states along the Congo River that maintained effective, centralized government and a royal currency until the seventeenth century.
Central African state that began trading with the Portuguese around 1500; although their kings, such as King Affonso I (r. 1506-1543), converted to Christianity, they nevertheless suffered from the slave trade.
Important trading city along the trans-Saharan trade route from the eleventh to the thirteenth centuries.
African kingdom founded in the thirteenth century by Sundiata; it reached its peak during the reign of Mansa Musa.
City conquered by Muhammed in 630. He destroyed pagan shrines and erected mosques.
A follower of Islam.
The prosperous capital of the Malian Empire that was linked to north Africa by a system of caravan routes.
Group in Ethiopia (1300s) claiming descent from Israelite kings.
Term relating to societies such as those of sub-Saharan Africa after the Bantu migrations that featured decentralized rule through family and kinship groups instead of strongly centralized hierarchies.
African city-state society that dominated the coast from Mogadishu to Kilwa and was active in trade.
Former colony of Southern Rhodesia that gained independence in 1980.