AP World History Ch. 16 and 17 Vocab- Part 2

Flashcard maker : Carmen Dawson
humanism
A Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements
individualism
A belief in the importance of the individual and the virtue of self-reliance and personal independence
secularism
A general movement away from religiosity and spiritual belief toward a rational, scientific orientation, a trend adopted by industrialized nations in the form of separation of church and state
perspective
An artistic technique that creates the appearance of three dimensions on a flat surface
Michelangelo
(1475-1564) An Italian sculptor, painter, poet, engineer, and architect. Famous works include the mural on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and the sculpture of the biblical character David
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian Renaissance artist that painted The Last Supper and Mona Lisa, he was also an engineer, architect, sculptor, and scientist
Brunelleschi
An architect who boldly combined classical and Gothic architecture. He used geometry as the basis for his designs, focusing on spheres and planes. He built the dome on the cathedral in Florence, starting in 1420. He also is given credit for being the first to understand and use perspective, although it was immediately used more clearly in sculpture and painting
Raphael
1483-1520 Short but productive life. Worked in Florence and Rome. Well-known for Madonnas, humanized portrayals of the Virgin Mary with the baby Jesus. Painted frescoes in Vatican Palace – espec. The School of Athens & The Triumph of Religion – reflect artist’s strong interest in classical antiquity and Christian religion
Botticelli
(1445-1510) was an Italian painter of the early Renaissance who painted figures whose feet did not touch the ground
Dante
(1265-1321) Italian poet and Renaissance writer. His greatest work is The Divine Comedy
Cervantes
Spanish writer best remembered for ‘Don Quixote’ which satirizes chivalry and influenced the development of the novel form (1547-1616)
William Shakespeare
(1564 – 1616) English poet and playwright considered one of the greatest writers of the English language; works include Julius Caesar, Macbeth, Romeo and Juliet, and Hamlet
Petrarch
(1304-1374) Father of Humanism. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization
Castiglione
Wrote The Courtier which was about education and manners and had a great influence. It said that an upper class, educated man should know many academic subjects and should be trained in music, dance, and art
Gutenberg
German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468)
Machiavelli
1469-1527 Niccolo, most important writer on POLITICS in the Renaissance. In The Prince rejected the Christian idea that state subject to divine law. Adopted SECULAR and AMORAL view of POLITICS. State existed for its own sake. Ruler should be concerned with preservation of power. Ends justified means. Yet most successful states of time were not in Italy but the New Monarchies. Politics in Italy was about virtu not involving loyalty as in New Monarchies
Francis 1
King in France that became a patron of the arts, imported Italian sculptors and architects to create their palaces., renaissance king of france; stability; artistic flourishing; $ towards art; obsessed with art; chateau de chambord
the Medici family
Bankers to the Pope. Controlled Florence. Great Patrons (supporters) of the Arts and Sciences. Paid for many great works of art
Rabelais
France’s most popular Renaissance author. Rejected the Middle Age’s focus on the afterlife and believed that people should enjoy life to the fullest
Erasmus
(1466?-1536) Dutch Humanist and friend of Sir Thomas More. Perhaps the most intellectual man in Europe and widely respected. Believed the problems in the Catholic Church could be fixed; did not suport the idea of a Reformation. Wrote Praise of Folly
Thomas More
He was a English humanist that contributed to the world today by revealing the complexities of man. He wrote Utopia, a book that represented a revolutionary view of society
indulgences
Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation
simony
Practice of selling positions in the church
95 Theses
Arguments written by Martin Luther against the Catholic church. They were posted on October 31, 1517
justification by faith
Martin Luther’s concept that faith alone is enough to bring salvation
good works
In the Catholic religion these are those things one might do to earn salvation (e.g. obey ten commandments, receive sarcaments, have contact with relics) — Most Protestants believe that these actions do not make one more deserving of salvation, which may only be obtained through faith alone
Protestantism
A division from the Catholic church that brought up a reformation within Western Christianity. They protested against the established Roman Catholic Church. It began in earnest when Martin Luther called in 1517 for a reopening of the debate on the sale of indulgences and the authority to absolve sin and remit one from purgatory. The reformers made use of inexpensive pamphlets because of the printing press which was still relatively new. This caused a swift movement of both ideas and documents, including The 95 Theses .In 1524,they Erupted into revolt and as they grew more violent they were denounced by Luther. With his support, the nobles suppressed the rebellion, killing tens of thousands of people and leaving thousands more homeless. The followers were also called Lutherans
Peasant Rebellion
peasants used Luther as a model for denying secular authority and revolted; Luther urged the princes to slay the rebels-more than 100,000 people killed and 100’s of villages burned
Council of Trent
Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend
Catholic Reformation
16th Century. Partly in response to the Protestant Reformation, Roman Catholic authorities undertook an enormous refor effort within their own church. To some extent their efforts represented a reaction to Protestant success. Roman Catholic authorities sought to define points of doctrine so as to clarify the differences between the Roman and Protestant churches. They also attempted to persuade the Protestants to return to the Catholic church
Anglican Church
Form of Protestantism set up in England after 1534; established by Henry VIII with himself as head, at least in part to obtain a divorce from his first wife; became increasingly Protestant following Henry’s death
predestination
Calvin’s religious theory that God has already planned out a person’s life
Calvinism
Protestant sect founded by John Calvin. Emphasized a strong moral code and believed in predestination (the idea that God decided whether or not a person would be saved as soon as they were born). Calvinists supported constitutional representative government and the separation of church and state
Martin Luther
16th century German monk and professor who is considered to be the person who started the Protestant Reformation; he began by criticizing Church practices (mainly indulgences) and ultimately broke with the Catholic Church to form his own new religious faith
Leo X
the pope who excommunicated Martin Luther and who in 1521 bestowed on Henry VIII the title of Defender of the Faith (1475-1521)
John Calvin
1509-1564. French theologian. Developed the Christian theology known as Calvinism. Attracted Protestant followers with his teachings
Henry VIII
(1491-1547) King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England’s break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Church of England in 1532
Puritans
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay
Huguenots
Calvinists in France
Jesuits
Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism
Ignatius Loyola
(1491-1556) Spanish churchman and founder of the Jesuits (1534); this order of Roman Catholic priests proved an effective force for reviving Catholicism during the Catholic Reformation.
John Wycliffe
(c.1328-1384) Forerunner to the Reformation. Created English Lollardy. Attacked the corruption of the clergy, and questioned the power of the pope
John Hus
15th century Bohemian clergyman, follower of John Wycliffe, who was burned at the stake for his criticism of Church doctrine
Anabaptists
A Protestant sect that believed only adults could make a free choice regarding religion; they also advocated pacifism, separation of church and state, and democratic church organization
Charles V
(1519-1556) – Hapsburg dynastic ruler of the Holy Roman Empire and of extensive territories in Spain and the Netherlands
Copernicus
1473-1543. Polish astronomer who was the first to formulate a scientifically based heliocentric cosmology that displaced the earth from the center of the universe. This theory is considered the epiphany that began the Scientific Revolution
Kepler
A German astronomer from 1571-1630 who formulated three laws of how the planets revolve around the sun
Galileo
(1564-1642) An Italian who provided more evidence for heliocentrism and questioned if the heavens really were perfect. He invented a new telescope, studied the sky, and published what he discovered. Because his work provided evidence that the Bible was wrong he was arrested and ended up on house arrest for the rest of his life
Vesalius
(1514-1564) A Flemish scientist who challenged traditional anatomy with his text \”On the Construction of the Human Body.\” Created with numerous illustrations of public dissections
Harvey
(1578-1657) An Englishman who used dissection to examine the circulation of blood throughout the body and how the heart worked as a pump. He insisted the heart and its valves were a piece of machinery that obeyed mechanical laws
Francis Bacon
(1561-1626) English politician, writer. Formalized the empirical method. Novum Organum. Inductive reasoning
Rene Descartes
17th century French philosopher; wrote Discourse on Method; 1st principle \”i think therefore i am\”; believed mind and matter were completly seperate; known as father of modern rationalism
Newton
(1642-1727) An English natural philosopher who studied at Cambridge and eventually developed the laws of movement found among the bodies of Earth. Spent his life dedicated to the study of mathematics (created calculus) and optics. Published Principia Mathematica and discovered the law of universal gravitation

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