AP World History: About 1750 to 1914

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Abolish
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do away with (e.g. slavery)
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Assembly Line
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Production method that breaks down a complex job into a series of smaller tasks (Industrial Revolution)
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Capital
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wealth in the form of money or property owned by a person or business and human resources of economic value
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Cartel
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a consortium of independent organizations formed to limit competition by controlling the production and distribution of a product or service
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Communism
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a theory or system of social organization based on the holding of all property in common, actual ownership being ascribed to the community as a whole or to the state.
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Constitution
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law determining the fundamental political principles of a government; the act of forming something
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Corporation
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a group of people who are joined into one legal or commercial body
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Doctrine
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a belief (or system of beliefs) accepted as authoritative by some group or school
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Domestic
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of concern to or concerning the internal affairs of a nation; involving the home or family
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Emancipation
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freeing someone from the control of another (e.g. Emancipation Proclamation)
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Enclosure
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taking money small farms and making them into bigger ones in England during the 1700’s
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Enlightenment
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a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions; education that results in understanding and the spread of knowledge
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Estates-General
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France’s traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution.
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Factory
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a plant consisting of buildings with facilities for manufacturing
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Free Market
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an economic system in which prices and wages are determined by unrestricted competition between businesses, without government regulation or fear of monopolies.
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Free Trade
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international trade free of government interference; the removal of trade barriers so that goods can flow freely between countries
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Immigration
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migration into a place (especially migration to a country of which you are not a native in order to settle there)
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Imperialism
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A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, socially, and economically.
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Indemnity
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legal exemption from liability for damages
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Industrial Revolution
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the change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.
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Laissez-faire
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a policy based on the idea that government should play as small a role as possible in the economy
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Labor Union
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Organization of workers for the purpose of increased lobbying power for benefits and wages; created to defend the interests of the members
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Leisure
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freedom provided by the cessation of activities; time free from work or duties
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Marxism
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the economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism will ultimately be replaced
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Nationalism
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the doctrine that your national culture and interests are superior to any other
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Natural Resources
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materials found in nature that are used by living things
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Rural
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living in or characteristic of farming or country life
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Social Class
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a group of people with similar backgrounds, incomes, and ways of living
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Social Darwinism
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The application of ideas about evolution and “survival of the fittest” to human societies – particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
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Socialism
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a theory or system of social organization that advocates the vesting of the ownership and control of the means of production and distribution, of capital, land, etc., in the community as a whole.
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Suffrage
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The right to vote.
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Trade Union
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a labor union of craftspeople or workers in related crafts, as distinguished from general workers or a union including all workers in an industry.
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Universal Suffrage
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the right of all adults to vote for their representatives
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Wage Labor
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a system of payment whereby workers are compensated on the bases of a wage not tied to the quality of the raw materials, accidents, or other exigencies in the production process
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American Revolution
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The war between Great Britain and its American colonies, 1775-1783, by which the colonies won their independence.
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Berlin Conference (1884)
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A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules colonization of Africa
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Bloody Sunday
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1905, peaceful protest to Czar Nicholas II’s palace, led by Father Gapon- fired on by palace guards, hundreds died- possibly start of revolution
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Boer Wars (1899-1902)
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Anglo-Dutch wars over British control in Africa- Conflict stemmed from different views on the treatment of natives.
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Boxer Rebellions
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1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese (the Boxers) who opposed the “foreign devils”. The rebellion was ended by British troops.
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British East India Company
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Government charted joint-stock company that controlled spice trade in the East Indies after the Dutch- controlled most of India during the period of imperialism- for more than 200 years.
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Capitulations
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Agreements with European powers that gave European bankers and merchants unfair advantages in the Ottoman Empire
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Charles Darwin
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English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)
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Communist Manifesto
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a socialist manifesto written by Marx and Engels (1842) describing the history of the working-class movement according to their views
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Congress of Vienna
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Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon I.
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Declaration of Independence
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the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the Colonies from Great Britain
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Declaration of the Rights of Man
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Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution.
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The Diet of Japan
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Japan’s legislature made up of two houses
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Emancipation of Serfs
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1861 by Czar Alexander II – most ambitious attempt at reform in Russia during 1800s – some government officials began to think that Russia could develop economically only if serfdom were abolished
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Empress Cixi (China)
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The dowager empress who encouraged and promoted the Boxer rebellion; helped to modernize China
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Frederich Engels
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A German philosopher, who developed the communist theory alongside co-author, Karl Marx.
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Execution of Louis XVI (France)
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January 21, 1783. Charged with treason and beheaded via the guillotine. (killed due to his monarchical views on ruling France, which all of the citizens greatly disagreed with) Marie Antoinette followed in October of that year.
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Miguel Hidalgo (Mexico)
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Mexican priest and revolutionary. Although the revolt he initiated (1810) against Spanish rule failed, he is regarded as a national hero in Mexico’s struggle for independence from Spain.
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Indian National Congress
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A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government. Its membership was middle class, and its demands were modest until World War I.
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Intolerable Acts
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series of laws passed in 1774 to punish Boston for the Tea Party- led to revolution
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The Jewel in the Crown
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India was considered the jewel in the crown of the British Empire.
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Mahmut II (Ottoman)
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Ottoman sultan; built a private, professional army; fomented revolution of Janissaries and crushed them with private army; destroyed power of Janissaries and their religious allies; initiated reform of Ottoman Empire on Western precedents.
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Karl Marx
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German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). These works explain historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences.
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Maxim Guns
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this was the first automatic machine gun that gave Europeans a huge advantage in fighting African armies
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Meiji Restoration
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The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism.
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Monroe Doctrine
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an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers
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Muhammed Ali (Egypt)
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Turkish ruler of Egypt who won effective independence of Egypt from the Ottomans in early 1800s
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Muslim League
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organization formed by Muslims in 1906 to protect their interests against British Rule.
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Napoleon Bonaparte
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Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of the French in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.
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Open Door Policy
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A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which all nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
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Opium Wars
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Also known as the Anglo-Chinese Wars, they were the climax of trade disputes and diplomatic difficulties between China under the Qing Dynasty and the British Empire after China sought to restrict British opium traffickers (and Britain had refused).
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Panama Canal
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Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States Army engineers (1904-1915). It greatly shortened the sea voyage between the east and west coasts of North America. The United States turned the canal over to Panama on Jan 1, 2000
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The Raj
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British dominion over India (1757-1947).
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Reign of Terror
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the historic period (1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed
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Cecil Rhodes
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Born in 1853, played a major political and economic role in colonial South Africa. He was a financier, statesman, and empire builder with a philosophy of mystical imperialism.
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Rudyard Kipling
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(1864-1936) English writer and poet; defined the "white man's burden" as the duty of European and Euro-American peoples to bring order and enlightenment to distant lands
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Russification
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the process of forcing Russian culture on all ethnic groups in the Russian empire
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Russo-Japanese War
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(1904-1905) War between Russia and Japan over imperial possessions. Japan emerges victorious by a long run.
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Scramble for Africa
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Term given for the rapid invasion of Africa by the various European powers. This began imperialism in Africa.
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Sepoy Mutiny (1857)
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A revolt by the hired Hindu and Muslim soldiers of the British East India Company. Both thought the British had used grease from an animal (pig or cow) each religion was not supposed to eat, on the bullets they distributed to them, so they revolted. This resulted in the British government officially taking control of India, making it a colony.
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Seven Years War (French and Indian)
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Fought between Great Britain and France over territory, often considered to be the first world war because it involved most of the globe.
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Sino-Japanese War
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(1894-1895) Japan’s imperialistic war against China to gain control of natural resources and markets for their goods. It ended with the Treaty of Portsmouth which granted Japan Chinese port city trading rights, control of Manchuria, the annexation of the island of Sakhalin, and Korea became its protectorate.
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Spanish American War
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In 1898, a conflict between the United States and Spain, in which the U.S. supported the Cubans’ fight for independence
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Spheres of Influence
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areas in which countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directly
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Suez Canal
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A canal linking the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. It was a vital trade route in the British Empire during imperialism, and continues to link North Africa and Europe to Asia today.
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The State Duma of Russia
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The State Duma was first introduced in 1906 and was Russia’s first elected parliament.
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Steam Engine (James Watts)
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A machine that turns the energy released by burning fuel into motion. Thomas Newcomen built the first crude but workable steam engine in 1712. James Watt vastly improved his device in the 1760s and 1770s. Steam power was then applied to machinery.
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Taiping Rebellion
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The most destructive civil war before the twentieth century. A Christian-inspired rural rebellion threatened to topple the Qing Empire.
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Unequal Treaties
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treaties between China and the Western powers after the Opium War that vastly favored the Western powers
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Otto von Bismarck
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German statesman under whose leadership Germany was united (1815-1898)
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Wealth of Nations (Adam Smith)
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British philosopher and writer Adam Smith’s 1776 book that described his theory on free trade, otherwise known as laissez-faire economics.
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Witte Industrialization Program
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Count Sergei Iul’evich Witte oversaw Russia’s transition economy from 1892 to 1903. As finance minister, Witte pushed for greater exports, ambitious industrialization, and large foreign loans. He hoped to modernize Russia and make it competitive with other great powers. These policies by and large continued after Witte was dismissed in 1903 and were expanded by Witte when he returned to government as premier in 1905-1906, and by his successors.
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Young Turks Party
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A Turkish revolutionary nationalist reform party, officially known as the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), whose leaders led a rebellion against the Ottoman sultan and effectively ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1908 until shortly before World War I.
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protectorate
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A country or region that is controlled by a more powerful country.
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White Man’s Burden
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A poem by Rudyard Kipling written in 1899. It is also the name given to the idea that the culture of the native populations where European imperialism was occurring were inferior to western nations. Some interpreted Kipling’s poem to mean that it was the duty of imperializing nations to bring western culture and sensibility to the savage native populations that were encountered in far off lands.

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