AP Psychology Unit 7 Study Guide

Modern memory model connectionism
views memories as emerging from interconnected neural networks

working memory
newer understanding of short-term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory

implicit memory
retention independent of conscious recollection (also called nondeclarative memory)

parallel processing
processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain’s natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision

encoding information
processing of information into the memory system—for example, by extracting meaning

chunking
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically

hierarchical organization
organization structured in a way such that every entity in the organization, except one, is subordinate to a single other entity

explicit memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare.” (also called declarative memory)

recall
measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test

recognition
measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test

cognitive psychology
study of mental processes such as attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking

prototype
mental image or best example of a category; provides a quick and easy method for sorting items into categories

algorithm
methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem; contrasts with the usually speedier—but also more error-prone—use of heuristics

heuristics
simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms

insight
sudden realization of a problem’s solution; contrasts with strategy-based solutions

right temporal lobe
associated with long-term memory

confirmation bias
tendency to search for, interpret, or prioritize information in a way that confirms one’s beliefs or hypotheses

fixation
inability to adopt any different or new perspective on a problem

mental set
tendency to approach situations the same way because that way worked in the past

functional fixedness
cognitive bias that limits a person to using an object only in the way it is traditionally used

representativeness heuristics
used when making judgments about the probability of an event under uncertainty

availibility heuristic
mental shortcut that relies on immediate examples that come to a given person’s mind when evaluating a specific topic, concept, method or decision

framing
people react to a particular choice in different ways depending on whether it is presented as a loss or as a gain

morpheme
smallest grammatical and meaningful unit in a language

rule of syntax
how words should be ordered in a sentence to make the sentence meaningful

babbling
first stage of language development

Whorf’s linguistic determinism hypothesis
form of linguistic determinism which argues that individuals experience the world based on the structure of the language they habitually use