AP Psychology Unit 6
Ex: (Refer to Image) As shown in the graph if an animal is repeatedly exposed to a stimulus such as a beeping noise, its startled response would decrease with repeated exposure to the noise.
Ex: We learn that a flash of lightning signals soon sounds of thunder, so when lightning flashes nearby, we brace ourselves for the sound of thunder.
Ex: (Refer to Image) A classic example of this type of conditioning is Pavlov’s experiment with salivating dogs. He taught them to pair food with the ring of the bell, which would cause them to salivate (in anticipation for receiving the food).
Ex: In Pavlov’s experiment with salivating dogs, acquisition occurred when the dogs paired the sound of the bell (neutral stimulus) with the presentation of food (unconditioned stimulus).
Ex: (Refer to Image) An animal that has learned that a tone predicts food might then learn that a light predicts the tone and begin responding to the light alone.
Ex: In Pavlov’s experiment with salivating dogs, extinction occurred when the bell was sounded again without presenting the food, and dogs salivated less and less.
Ex: (Refer to Image) In Pavlov’s experiment with salivating dogs, spontaneous recovery could have occurred if after extinction of the conditioned behavior (salivation), after another pause in the training, the behavior reappeared, and the dogs began to salivate once more.
Ex: Pavlov discovered that the dogs salivated when conditioned to the sound of one tone (CS), and also responded somewhat to the sound of a different tone that had never been paired with food (US).
Ex: In Pavlov’s experiment with salivating dogs, this could have occurred if the dogs learned to respond to the sound of a particular tone (CS) and not to other tones.
Ex: The human eye demonstrates respondent behavior when the pupil starts to constrict when exposed to direct sunlight. If the pupil did not constrict, then the eye would be more exposed to sun rays, which could lead to blindness.
Ex: (Refer to Image) In B.F. Skinner’s experiments, operant conditioning was used, as if rats pressed a lever in the operant chamber, they would receive food. However, if they did not perform this task, they would stay hungry.
Ex: (Refer to Image) A child may be more likely behave in school and get good grades if they are promised and given a toy as a result. They will be less likely to misbehave if they would become grounded as a result.
Ex: Skinner used shaping during his experiments with rats in an operant chamber when he guided the animals to move closer and closer to a bar in order to receive food. This was also done using successive approximations, in which he would reward the animals’ responses that were closer to the final desired behavior and ignored all other responses.
Ex: If a child wanted to be rewarded with a toy (reinforcement) then they would behave during class (discriminative stimulus).
Ex: (Refer to Image) One example of this would be the food rewarded to an animal after it performed a trick.
Ex: (Refer to Image) Having a job and going to work every day to receive a paycheck.
Ex: (Refer to Image) A baby is crying, so you give him/her a bottle to stop the noise.
Ex: In most animal experiments, food is used as primary stimulus, as the animals are highly motivated to retrieve it because without it, they would go hungry.
Ex: When one works for money, the money is the conditioned reinforcer as it only gains its power through a history of association with primary reinforcers (one needs money to buy food).
Ex: This would occur if when potty-training a toddler, the parent would reward the child every time he or she used the toilet correctly.
Ex: (Refer to Image) When using a slot machine, because one does not win every time, one may continue to play on it because they will win a reward at some undetermined point.
Ex: This would occur if a child were to receive a toy only after he or she received a certain number of A’s.
Ex: This would occur if a child were to receive a toy after he or she received a variable or random number of A’s.
Ex: This would occur if a child were to receive a after he or she received an A only after a specified period of time between that instance, and the last reward.
Ex: This would occur if a child were to receive a after he or she received an A after a random or variable period of time between that instance, and the last reward.
Ex: One example of this could occur if a student is taught how to perform a special type of division, but does not demonstrate the knowledge until an important test is given.
Ex: (Refer to Image) This can be demonstrated when individuals chose to play a sport because they truly enjoy the activity and love the challenge they get from participating.
Ex: (Refer to Image) This can be demonstrated when a student only gets good grades because their parents had promised them an increase in their allowance.
Ex: (Refer to Image) After witnessing an older sibling being punished for taking a cookie without asking, the younger child does not take cookies without permission.
Ex: Children demonstrate modeling if they begin to mimic certain characteristics if their parents (like cursing when they are frustrated with something).
Ex: (Refer to Image) A child becomes literate through experience with sounding out words and practice with reading.
Ex: In a particular instance, a child is acting poorly and does not pay attention during class. The approach of behaviorism may attribute this behavior to teaching methods his teacher practices. If the teacher is not using effective punishment/reinforcement tactics, then the student may not have learned to control his behavior and focus his thinking.
Ex: In Pavlov’s experiment with salivating dogs, the unconditioned response would be the dog’s salivation when food is in its mouth, as this response was unlearned.
Ex: In Pavlov’s experiment with salivating dogs, the unconditioned stimulus would be the food placed in the dog’s mouth, as this automatically triggered its natural response of salivation.
Ex: In Pavlov’s experiment with salivating dogs, the conditioned response would be the dog’s salivation after the sound of a bell, as this response was learned. (Ringing bells do not naturally trigger salivation.)
Ex: In Pavlov’s experiment with salivating dogs, the conditioned stimulus would be the sound of a bell, as this stimulus was originally irrelevant to the dog, but was then associated with the unconditioned stimulus of food.
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Ex: (Refer to Image) In school a child who studies hard and succeeds (behavior), will be given a gold star (consequence).
Ex: (Refer to Image) It was observed that dogs would not try to escape the tested shocks if they had been conditioned to believe that they couldn’t escape.
Ex: (Refer to Image) Occurs when a child realizes that if a child behaves his or herself (solution) then they will receive a toy (initial problem).
Ex: (Refer to Image) After studying rats in a maze for 10 days, the rats received a food reward at the end of the maze. Then the rats rapidly ran through the maze again to try to receive more food. They developed a cognitive map of the maze which allowed them to do this.
Ex: (Refer to Image) If a child misbehaves their punishment may be to go into a time out for a certain period of time, with the hope that the child would then learn not to repeat the behavior.
Ex: A prosocial behavioral model may encourage children to read by reading to them or surrounding them with books and people who read. Also, students can improve a skill by choosing a role model and observing his or her behavior over a period of time.
Ex: (Refer to Image) These neurons will fire when a monkey grasps, holds or tears something, or when it observes another doing so.
Ex: (Refer to Image).
Ex: Once Jenna was paid for pursuing her passion of art, the extrinsic motivations out weighed those of her intrinsic motivations, and she no longer enjoyed the activity as much as she once did.