AP Psychology Unit 1 & 2

Psychology is the mix of what two foundations?
Biology and Philosophy

Who is the creator of the idea of natural selections, which is a principle in psychology, as well as biology?
Charles Darwin

In its early years, psychology focused on the study of _______; from the 1920s into the 1960s, American psychologists emphasized the study of ________.
Mental processes; observable behavior

The neuroscience perspective in psychology would be most likely to emphasize that behavior is influenced by:
brain chemistry

Which perspective is most directly relevant to an understanding of the nature-nurture issue?
Behavior Genetics

Identical twins are more similar in intelligence than fraternal twins. This fact would be of most direct relevance to the ________ perspective.
Behavior Genetics

Which perspective suggest that the facial expressions we use to express anger and fear are inherited?
Evolutionary

Mrs. Thompson believes that her son has learned to play the piano because she consistently rewards his efforts to learn with praise and affections. Her belief best illustrates a ________ perspective.
Behavioral

The psychodynamic perspective is distinctive because it emphasizes that behavior is influenced by:
Unconscious desires and unresolved conflicts

Dr. Santaniello conducts basic research on how a child’s thinking changes as they get older. It is most likely that Dr. Santaniello is a _________ psychologist.
developmental

The various theoretical perspectives employed by psychologists:
often compliment one another

The specialist most likely to have a medical degree is a:
psychiatrist

Molly wonders whether personality differences between her African-American and white friends results from biological or cultural differences. In this instance, Molly is primarily concerned with the issue of:
Nature vs. Nurture

Innate ability is to learned skills as _______is to _______.
nature; nurture

What is the correct order for the active method of learning?
Preview, read, think critically, and review

What was the definition of psychology before the 1920s?
scientific study of mental life

Breathing is to remembering as ________ is to ________.
behavior; mental processes

The first psychological laboratory was established in _______ by ________.
Germany, Wilhelm Wundt

The cognitive perspective in psychology emphasizes how:
people encode, process, store, and retrieve information

Which of the following disciplines had the greatest influence on the way Wundt, Pavlov, Freud, and Piaget approached the study of psychology?
Biology

What variable is being manipulated in an experiment?
independent

What variable is being measured in an experiment?
dependent

What ensures that everyone has an equal chance to participate in an experiment?
random sampling

What is the purpose of an experiment?
proves causation (cause & effect)

What gives details about all variables and groups of an experiment?
operational definition

What is used to reduce the effects of extraneous factors in both research conditions?
random assignment

What was the importance of the operational definition from the pace of living experiment?
must define the variables

What conditions receives the independent variable?
experimental

What is used to reduce researcher bias in an experiment?
double-blind study

What condition does not receive the independent variable , and what does it get instead?
control group, placebo

What is the purpose of the control condition?
to compare the two groups

What is the purpose of descriptive research? What are ways it is performed?
to observe and describe: case study, survey, naturalistic observation

What are three measures of central tendency?
mean, median, mode

What measure of central tendency is easiest to skew?
mean

What are two measures of variation?
range, standard deviation

Who said,” what good fortune for those in power that people do not think”?
Adolf Hitler

What are the seven current perspectives of psychology?
evolutionary, social cultural, cognitive, psychodynamic, neuroscience, humanistic, behavioral

Which perspective focuses on how the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences?
biological

Which perspective focuses on how we learn observable responses?
behavioral

Which perspective focuses on how behavior and thinking vary across situations?
social cultural

Which perspective focuses on how we encode, process, store, and retrieve information?
cognitive

Which perspective focuses on how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts?
psychodynamic

Which perspective is concerned with how much our genes and our environment influences our individual differences?
biological

What are the three big issues today for psychologists?
nature vs nurture, irrational vs rational, stability vs change

What Greek philosophers believed in innate ideas?
Socrates, Plato

What Greek philosopher believed in learned ideas?
Aristotle

What 17th century European philosopher believed in innate ideas?
Descartes

What 17th century European philosopher believed in learned ideas?
Locke

Modern day psychology is a mixture of what two fields?
biology and philosophy

Who was the father of functionalism, focusing on how organisms adapt to their environment?
William James

Who was the father of psychology, starting the first psychological laboratory in Germany in 1879?
Wilhelm Wundt

What school of psychology was started by Wundt, focusing on the subjective and objective experience?
structuralism

What student of Wundt’s brought his ideas to Cornell University, teaching introspection as a way to teach self-reflection?
Edward B. Titchner

What ancient Greek physician believed an imbalance in bodily fluids, humors, caused psychological symptoms?
Hippocrates

During what time period did people believe psychological symptoms were caused by demon possession?
medieval

Who created the school of psychoanalysis, focusing on the unconscious drives? What current day perspective did it involve into?
Sigmund Freud, Psychodynamic

Who wrote the first psychology textbook in the 1890s?
William James

Who wrote the “Origin of Species” in 1859, which would have an influence on the evolutionary perspective of psychology?
Charles Darwin

Which area of psychology might be best suited to investigate the following research question: what happens in our brain when we forget details about stressful life events, and how does this process affect behavior?
cognitive neuroscience

Which philosopher would have been most enthusiastic about modern empiricism?
Aristotle

Who was the American philosopher who authored a textbook in 1890 for the emerging discipline of psychology?
William James

Which approach is most directly concerned with assessing the relative impact of both nature and nurture on our psychological traits?
biopsychosocial

The unreliability of introspection contributed to the waning popularity of
structuralism

Functionalism was a school of psychology that focused attention on the
adaptive value of conscious thoughts and emotions

Who would have been most likely to ignore mental processes and to define psychology as ” the scientific study of observable behavior”?
John B. Watson

In explaining human behavior, psychoanalysts are likely to focus on ______, whereas humanistic psychologists concentrate on______.
childhood experiences and unconscious thought processes; current environmental influences on potential

In the early 1960s, the cognitive revolution in psychology involved a renewal of interest in the scientific study of
mental processes

Mrs. Alfieri believes that her husband’s angry outbursts against her result from his unconscious hatred of his own mother. Mrs. Alfieri is looking at her husband’s behavior from a _______ perspective.
psychodynamic

Which of the following psychologists most clearly rejected the value of introspection?
John B. Watson

Which philosopher is most well known for theorizing that the mind at birth is tabula rasa or a “blank slate”?
John Locke

Arguments as to whether psychological differences between men and women result from biological or social influences most clearly involve a debate over the issue of
nature vs nurture

Introspection was the basic research tool used by ______ in order to study people’s inner sensations and mental images.
Edward Titchner

Contemporary psychology is best defined as the scientific study of
behavior and mental processes

The first psychological laboratory was established by
Wilhelm Wundt

The cognitive perspective in psychology focuses on how
people encode, process, store and retrieve information

The early school of psychology known as functionalism was developed by
William James

Who was a student of William James and the first female president of the American Psychological Association?
Mary Calkins

Who would be most likely to emphasize the role of the unconscious in affecting behavior?
Sigmund Freud

Wilhelm Wundt’s laboratory work involved experimental studies of
reactions to sensory stimulation

In the context of debates regarding the origins of knowledge, Aristotle is to ______ as Plato is to _____
nurture, nature

The ideas that most directly helped form modern empiricism were proposed by
John Locke and Francis Bacon

In its early years, psychology focused on the study of ______, but from the 1920s into the 1960s, American psychologists emphasized the study of ______
mental life, observable behavior

The inheritance of behavior characteristics was emphasized by
John Watson

What is the correct order of the Greek philosophers?
Socrates, Plato, Aristotle

The ideas that most directly helped form modern empiricism were proposed by
John Locke and Francis Bacon

Descartes theory of how our brain controlled our reflexes involved which of the following?
brain fluid and animal spirits

Which philosopher would have been most enthusiastic about modern empiricism?
Rene Descartes

Basic Purpose of Descriptive
to observe and record behavior

How is Descriptive method conducted?
case studies, surveys, or naturalistic behavior

Descriptive Method Strengths
case studies require only one participant; surveys may be done fairly quickly and inexpensively. Naturalistic observation may be done when it’s not ethical to manipulate variables

Basic Purpose of Correlational
to detect naturally occurring relationships; to assess how well one variable predicts another

Hos is correlational method conducted?
compute statistical association, sometime among survey responses

Correlational Method Strengths
works with large groups of data, and may be used in situations where an experiment wouldn’t be ethical or possible

Correlational Method Weaknesses
Does not specify cause and effect

Descriptive Method Weaknesses
No control of variables; single cases may be misleading

Basic Purpose of Experimental
to explore cause and effect

How is experimental method conducted?
manipulate one or more factors; use random assignments

What is manipulated in experimental method?
the independent variables

Experimental Method Strengths
specifies cause and effect, and variables are controlled

Experimental Method Weaknesses
sometimes not feasible; results may not generalize to other contexts; not ethical to manipulate certain variables

Cognitive neuroscience
the study of brain activity linked with mental activity

experimental psychologist
who explore behavior and thinking with experiments

behaviorism
the view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes.

humanistic psychology
the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language)

nature-nurture issue
the lonstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behavior

natural selection
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on succeeding generations

structuralism
an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind

functionalism
a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function – how they enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish

levels of analysis
the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon

Biopsychosocial approach
an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social cultural levels of analysis

psychometrics
the scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits

basic research
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base

developmental psychology
the scientific study of physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span

educational psychology
the study of how psychological processes affect and relate to one another

personality psychology
the study of an individuals characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

social psychology
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another

applied research
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems

industrial organization psychology
the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces

human factors psychology
the study of how people and machines interact and the design of safe and easily used machines and environments

counseling psychology
a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well being

clinical psychology
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders

psychiatry
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who often provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy

hindsight bias
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it

critical thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions; it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusion

theory
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events

hypothesis
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory

population
all the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn

random sample
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation

correlation
a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of well either factor predicts the other

correlational coefficient
a statistical index of the relationship between two things (-1 to +1)

scatterplot
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables

illusory correlational
the perception of a relationship where none exists

experiment
a research method in which an environment an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process ( the dependent variable)

random assignment
assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups

double blind procedure
an experimental procedure n which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo

placebo effect
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent

experimental group
in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable

control group
in an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment

confounding variable
a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment

normal curve
a symmetrical, bell shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data

statistical significance
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance

culture
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next

informed consent
an ethical principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate

debriefing
the postexperimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants