AP Psychology Midterm Study Guide

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wilhelm wundt
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opened the first experimental laboratory in psychology
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biological perspective
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cause of behavior is our brain , to change behaviors, you have to change the way the brain functions
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behaviorism perspective
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environment impacts the way you behave such as conditions like rewards/punishments
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cognitive perspective
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based on mental processes, speaking and thinking people act because they think, people think because they are human
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humanistic perspective
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people areinnately good and capable of choice main task of humans is to grow and develop
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psychodynamic perspective
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behavior is result of unconscious dynamics, inner forces not based on observation
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sociocultural perspective
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behavior results from social and cultural influences
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evolutionary perspective
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mental abilities evolve over millions of years
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correlation coefficient
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measures the strength and direction between two variables, the closer to 0 the less of a relationship there is
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confirmation bias
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interpret information in a way which confirms ones perceptions and statistical errors
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statistically significant
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psychologist understand there is a 5% that results occurred by chance, something outside of experiment caused the result
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permeability
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ability of gates to open and close and let chemicals (sodium phosphate) into the neuron, open when action potential hits, at rest they are closed
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ACh
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neurotransmitter affected by Alzheimer
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GABA
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neurotransmitter linked to seizures
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parasympathetic nervous system
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controls homeostasis at rest and is responsible for bodies rest and digest
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sympathetic nervous system
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controls bodies responses to a perceived threat, fight or flight
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heritability
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variation among individuals than can attribute to genes
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natural selection
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among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
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signal detection theory
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predict how and when we detect the presence of signal and noise
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accommodation
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eye lens changes to focus on near or far objects on the retina
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sequence of sound waves
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eardrum hammer and anvil and stirrup and the cochlea and hits the Auditory nerve
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frequency theory
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how we perceive low pitch sounds
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place theory
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how we perceive high pitch sounds, where hairs are hit in cochlea
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stage 1
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alpha wave as the brain begins to slow down and and goes through hypnogogic sensations
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REM sleep
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brain and other systems become active muscles become relaxed and paralyzed (paradoxical)
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withdrawl
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physically dependent on a drug or any substance
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LSD
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hallucinations you feel that you are seperate to your body and see things (dancing bunnies) really dangerous
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barbiturates
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slow your system down, breathing
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associative learning
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two different events occur or happen together – dog salivating
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high-order conditioning
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bitten by a bird and you hear a bird you become afraid, not just because of the bite, but any sound it makes
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conditioned stimulus
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bell to make dog salivate
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unconditioned stimulus
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salivation due to the bell
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extinction
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Imagine that you taught your dog to shake hands. Over time, the trick became less interesting. You stop rewarding the behavior and eventually stop asking the animal to shake hands
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positive reinforcement
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strengthening behavior by presenting a desired stimulus after the behavior
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negative reinforcement
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strengthening behavior by removing an averse stimulus when the behavior occurs
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variable interval
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random time
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fixed interval
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a set amount of time, done at a specific time
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mirror neurons
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fire when individual watches somebody else perform the same action, involved in empathy, observational learning, and reading emotions of others
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long-term memory
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where flashbulb memories are stored
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acoustic encoding
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what you hear
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semantic encoding
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knowing the meaning
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long-term potentiation
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storehouse of memory system, increase in semantic encoding contributes to memory formation
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misinformation effect
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someone hears outside information that is not right and add it to their memory
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prototype
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what things should look like in your mind like a chair, boat, cute guy
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representative heuristic
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what your mind perceives that a person is based on action or how they look (stereotype)
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fixation
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inability to see a problem from a different perspective , by employing a different mental set
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phoneme
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smallest distinctive sound unit
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morpheme
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the smallest unit that carries meaning , word or part of a word
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optimum arousal
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motivated to reach the highest level of satisfaction possible
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refractory period
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men cannot get an orgasm one after another (sexual behavior)
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cannon-bard theory
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heart beating and physical reactions occur at the same time
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james-lange theory
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emotion and physical reaction occur from one to another
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Schachter singer 2 factor
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physiological changes can trigger different emotions not only fear
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oxytocin
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hormone used for contractions
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secure attachment
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lasting emotional connection between child and mother
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insecure attachment
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children avoid or ignore caregiver
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gender roles
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set of societal norms dictating types of behaviors are generally considered acceptable, appropriate or desirable for a person based on their actual or perceived sex
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gender schema
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the way we organize ideas about genders
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lawrence kohlberg
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stages of moral development

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