AP Psychology Final Study Guide #2

The view that psychology should be an objective science that studies observable human activity without reference to mental processes is known as…
Behaviorism

Which perspective is most concerned with how individuals interpret their experiences?
Cognitive

In answering multiple-choice test items, smart test-takers are best advised to…
Recall the correct answer to each question before reading the alternative answers.

Complementary accounts of the same behavior that can supplement one another represent different …
levels of analysis.

Dr. Robinson conducts research on the relationship between brain chemistry and intellectual functioning. Which psychological specialty does Dr. Robinson’s research best represent?
biological psychology.

Dr. Roberts studies how best to test for individuals differences in traits such as anxiety and self-esteem. Which specialty area does her research best represent?
personality psychology.

Wilhelm Wundt’s laboratory work involved experimental studies of…
reactions to sensory stimulation.

The specialist most likely to have a medical degree is a
psychiatrist

Charles Darwin attempted to explain the ………. that he had encountered.
species variation

Innate ability is to learned skills as……. is to……..
nature; nurture

Cognitive neuroscience studies relationships between…
thought processes and brain functions.

Dr. Mills conducts research on why individuals conform to the behaviors and opinions of others. Which specialty area does his research best represent?
Social psychology

Profesor Lopez believes that severe depression results primarily from an imbalanced diet and abnormal brain chemistry. Professor Lopez favors a…….. perspective on depression.
neuroscience.

The SQ3R study method emphasizes the importance of…
reviewing material

Which perspective would focus on the extent to which different styles of parenting are encouraged among various ethnic groups?
Social-cultural

Studying people of all races and cultures is most helpful for…
discerning human similarities and differences.

The study of psychology is potentially dangerous because…
psychological knowledge can be used for destructive purposes.

Several weeks after a political election, voters often exaggerate their ability to have predicted the election outcome. This best illustrates…
hindsight bias.

The American Psychological Association and British Psychological Society have developed ethical principles urging investigators to ….
explain the research to the participants after the study has been completed.

Giving half the members of a group some purported psychological finding and the other half an opposite result is an easy way to demonstrate the impact of….
hindsight bias

The simplified reality of laboratory experiments is most helpful in enabling psychologists to…
develop general principles that help explain behavior.

When you read a bar graph, it is most important for you to…
note the range and size of the scale values.

Suppose that people who watch a lot of violence on TV are also particularly likely to behave aggressively. This relationship would NOT necessarily indicate that watching violence influences aggressive behavior because…
correlation does not prove causation.

Professor Delano suggests that because people are especially attracted to this who are good looing, handsome men will be more successful than average-looking men in getting a job. The professor’s prediction regarding employment success is an example of…
a hypothesis.

University of Texas students were fitted with belt-worn tape recorders for up to four days so that researchers could sample their daily activities. The researchers employed a scientific method known as…
naturalistic observation.

To accurately infer cause and effect, experimenters should use …
random assignment

Replication of a research study is most likely to be facilitated by…
operational definitions

To assess the influences of self-esteem on interpersonal attraction, research either insulted or complimented students about their physical appearance just before they went on a blind date. In this research, the dependent variable was…
interpersonal attraction.

The placebo effect best illustrates the impact of ………… on feelings and behaviors.
positive expectations

On a series of coin tosses, Oleg has correctly predicted heads or tails seven times in a row. In this instance, we can reasonably conclude that Oleg’s predictive accuracy…
is a random and coincidental occurrence.

To discover the extent to which economic status can be used to predict political preferences, researchers are most likely to use…
correlational measures.

Six of the children in Mr. Myer’s class were born on exactly the same day. This strikes him as astonishing and improbable. In this instance, he should be reminded that….
random sequences of events often don’t look random.

The explanatory power of a scientific theory is most closely linked to its capacity to generate testable…
predictions

Researchers use experiments rather than other research methods in order to distinguish between …
causes and effects.

Which of the following is true for those assigned to a control group?
the experimental treatment is absent

In a psychological experiment, the experimental factor that is manipulated by the investigator is called the……….. variable.
independent

Seven members of a Girl Scout troop report the following indivdual earnings from their scale of candy: $4, $1, $6, $8, $2, and $7. In this distribution of individual earnings….
the mean is less than the mode and less than the median.

To decide whether observed differences between samples reflect actual differences between populations, you should determine the ……….. of the observed differences.
statistical significance

If psychologists discovered that more intelligent parents have smarter children than less intelligent parents, this would demonstrate that…
the intelligence of parents and children is positively correlated.

Research participants are randomly assigned to different groups in an experiment in order to ….
reduce the likelihood of any preexisting differences between groups of participants.

The mean of a distribution of scores is the…
arithmetic average of all the scores.

A lopsided distribution of scores in which the mean is much larger than both the mode and median is said to be…
skewed

to determine whether the strength of people’s self-esteem is related to their income levels, researchers would most likely make use of ….
correlation research

Median is to range as central tendency is to ….
variation

In a study of the effects of drinking alcohol, some participants drank a nonalcoholic beverage that actually smelled and tasted like alcohol. This nonalcoholic drink was a ….
placebo

In an experimental study, men with erectile dysfunction received either Viagra or a placebo. In this study, the drug dosage (none versus peak does) was the ….
independent variable

Professor Shalet contends that parents and children have similar levels of intelligence largely because they share common genes. His idea is best described as a …
theory

As the size of a representative sample increases, the ………………… of that sample is most likely to decrease.
standard deviation

When a statistical average is reported in the news, it is most important for readers to…
consider whether it is distorted by a few extreme cases.

In a single day, 45 babies were born in hospital X, 65 babies in hospital Y, and 25 babies in hospital Z. At which hospital is there the greatest probability that more than 60 percent of the babies are of the same sex?
hospital Z

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