AP Psychology- Chapter 9: Memory

the persistence of learning over time through storage and retrieval

flashbulb memory
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event

the processing of information into the memory system

the retention of encoded information over time

the process of getting information out of the memory storage

short-term memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly before the information is stored or forgotten

long-term memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system; includes knowledge, skills, and experiences

working memory
a newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory

automatic processing
unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information

effortful processing
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort

the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage

spacing effect
the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice

serial position effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list

visual encoding
the encoding of picture images

acoustic encoding
the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words

semantic encoding
the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words

mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding

memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices

organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically

iconic memory
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second

echoic memory
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds

long-term potentiation (LPT)
an increase in a synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation; believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory

the loss of memory

implicit memory
retention independent of conscious recollection; also called procedural memory

explicit memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare”; also called declarative memory

a neural center that is located in the limbic system and helps process explicit memories for storage

a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test

a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test

a memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time

the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory

deja vu
the eerie sense that “I’ve experienced this before”; cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience

mood-congruent memory
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood

proactive interference
the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information

retroactive interference
the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information

in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories

misinformation effect
incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event

source amnesia
attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined; at the heart of many false memories; also called source misattribution

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