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AP Psychology Ch. 15 Therapy Vocabulary

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Eclectic Approach
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An approach to psychotherapy that, depending on the client’s problems, uses techniques from various forms of therapy
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Psychotherapy
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Treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth
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Psychoanalysis
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Sigmund Freud’s therapeutic technique. Freud believed the patient’s free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences-and the therapist’s interpretations of them- released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight
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Resistance
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In psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material
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Interpretation
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In psychoanalysis, the analyst’s noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight
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Transference
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In psychoanalysis, the patient’s transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships (such as love or hatred for a patient)
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Psychodynamic Therapy
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Therapy deriving from the psychoanalytic tradition that views individuals as responding to unconscious forces and childhood experiences, and that seeks to enhance self-insight
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Insight Therapies
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A variety of therapies which aim to improve psychological functioning by increasing the client’s awareness of underlying motives and defenses
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Client-Centered Therapy
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A humanistic therapy, developed by Car Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening withing a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate client’s growth. AKA Person-Centered Therapy
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Active Listening
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Empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies
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Unconditional Positive Regard
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A caring, accepting, nonjudgmental attitude, which Carl Rogers believed to be conductive to developing self-awareness and self-acceptance
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Behavior Therapy
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Therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors
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Counterconditioning
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A behavior therapy procedure that uses classical conditioning to evoke new responses to stimuli that are triggering unwanted behaviors; includes exposure therapies and aversive conditioning
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Exposure Therapies
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Behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization, that treat anxieties by exposing people (in imagination or actuality) to the things they fear and avoid
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Systematic Desensitization
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A type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias
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Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy
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An anxiety treatment that progressively exposes people to simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking
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Aversive Conditioning
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A type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)
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Token Economy
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An operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privileges or treats
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Cognitive Therapy
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Therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
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Cognitive-Behavior Therapy
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A popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior)
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Family Therapy
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Therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual’s unwanted behaviors as influenced by, or directed at, other family members
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Regression Towards the Mean
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The tendency for extreme or unusual scores to fall back (regress) toward their average
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Meta-Analysis
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A procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies
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Evidence-Based Practice
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Clinical decision-making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences
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Energy Therapies
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Propose to manipulate people’s invisible energy fields
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Recovered-Memory Therapies
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Aim to unearth “repressed memories” of early child abuse
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Rebirthing Therapies
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Engage people in reenacting the supposed trauma of their birth
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Facilitated Communication
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Has an assistant touch the typing hand of a child with autism
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Crisis Debriefing
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Forces people to rehearse and “process” their traumatic experiences
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Biomedical Therapy
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Prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient’s nervous system
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Psychopharmachology
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The study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior
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Antipsychotic Drugs
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Drugs used to treat schizophrenia and other forms of severe thought disorder
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Tardive Dyskinesia
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Involuntary movement of the facial muscles, tongue and limbs; a possible neurotoxic side effect of long-term use of antipsychotic drugs that target certain dopamine receptors
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Antianxiety Drugs
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Drugs used to control anxiety and agitation
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Antidepressant Drugs
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Drugs used to treat depression; also increasingly prescribed for anxiety. Different types work by altering the availability of various neurotransmitters
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Electroconvulsive Therapy (ETC)
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A biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient
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Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)
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The application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate of suppress brain activity
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Psychosurgery
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Surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior
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Lobotomy
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A now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent patients. The procedure cut the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the emotion-controlling centers of the inner brain