AP Psych Unit 8

developmental psychology
a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
zygote
the fertilized egg; it enters a 2 week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo
embryo
the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month
fetus
the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth
teratogens
agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm
fetal alcohol syndrome
physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by pregnant woman’s heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions
rooting reflex
a baby’s tendency, when touched on the cheek, to turn towards the touch, open the mouth, and search for the nipple
habituation
as infants gain familiarity and repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner
maturation
biological growth process that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience
schema
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
assimillation
interpreting one’s new experience in terms of one’s existing schemas
accomodation
adapting one’s current understandings to incorporate new information
cognition
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
sensorimotor stage
in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from birth-2yrs) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
-object permanece
-stranger anxiety
object permanence
the awareness that objects continue to exist even when not perceived
preoperational stage
in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from 2-6/7yrs) during which a child learns to use language but doesn’t comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
-pretend play
-egocentrism
-language development
conservation
the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and numbers remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
egocentrism
in Piaget’s theory, the preoperational child’s difficulty taking another’s point of view
theory of mind
people’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states- about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict
autism
a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others’ states of mind
concrete operational stage
in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development(6/7-11yrs) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
-conservation
-mathematical transformations
formal operational stage
in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (12 yrs) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
-abstract logic
-potential for mature moral reasoning
stranger anxiety
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by 8 months of age
attachment
an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on seperation
critical period
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
imprinting
the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
basic trust
according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy, said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers
self-concept
a sense of one’s identity and personal worth
aggression
physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone
X chromosome
the sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two and males have one
Y chromosome
the sex chromosome found in only in males
testosterone
most important male sex hormone; both sexes have it, but additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty
role
a set of expectations(norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
gender role
a set of expected behaviors for males and females
gender identity
one’s sense of being male or female
gender-typing
the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
gender schema theory
the theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male or female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly
adolescence
the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence
puberty
the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing
primary sex characteristics
the body structures that make sexual reproduction possible
secondary sex characteristics
non-reproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips and males voice quality and body hair.
menarche
the first menstrual period
identity
one’s sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent’s task is to solidify a self of self by testing and integrating various roles
intimacy
in Erikson’s theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood
menopause
the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a women experiences as her ability to reproduce declines
Alzheimer’s disease
a progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and, finally, physical functioning
cross-sectional study
a study in which people of difference ages are compared to one another
longitudinal study
research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period
crystallized intelligence
one’s accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age
fluid intelligence
one’s ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood
social clock
the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement
personal space
The buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies
Kubler Ross Stages of Dying
denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance
trust vs mistrust
Erikson’s stage for infancy, if needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust
atonomy vs shame and doubt
Erikson’s stage for toddlers, they learn to exercise will and do things for themselves or they doubt their abilities
initiative vs guilt
Erikson’s stage for preschoolers, they learn to initate tasks and carry out plans of they feel guilty about their efforts to be independent
competence vs inferiority
Erikson’s stage for elementary school, children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks or feel inferior
identity vs role confusion
Erikson’s stage for adolescence, teens work at refining a sense of self by testing roles and them integrating them to form a single identity, of they become confused about who they are
intimacy vs isolation
Erikson’s stage for early adulthood, they struggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love, or they feel socially isolated
generatively vs stagnation
Erikson’s stage for middle adulthood, people discover a sense of contributing to the world, usually through family and work, or they may feel a lack of purpose
integrity vs despair
Erikson’s stage for late adulthood, when reflecting on his or her life, the older adult may feel a sense of satisfaction of failure
preconventional morality
Kohlberg’s moral stage for infancy through elementary, before age nine, most children obey either to avoid punishment or to gain concrete rewards
conventional morality
Kohlberg’s moral stage for adolescence through early adulthood, morality has usually evolved to a more conventional level that cares for other and upholds laws and social rules simply because they are laws or rules
post conventional morality
Kohlberg’s moral stage for middle through late adulthood, some of those who have developed abstract reasoning of formal thought may come to this third level. ________ morality affirms people’s agreed upon rights or follows what one personally perceives as basic ethical principles