AP Psych Unit 8

developmental psychology
a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span

zygote
the fertilized egg; it enters a 2 week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo

embryo
the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month

fetus
the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth

teratogens
agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm

fetal alcohol syndrome
physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by pregnant woman’s heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions

rooting reflex
a baby’s tendency, when touched on the cheek, to turn towards the touch, open the mouth, and search for the nipple

habituation
as infants gain familiarity and repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner

maturation
biological growth process that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience

schema
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information

assimillation
interpreting one’s new experience in terms of one’s existing schemas

accomodation
adapting one’s current understandings to incorporate new information

cognition
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

sensorimotor stage
in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from birth-2yrs) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
-object permanece
-stranger anxiety

object permanence
the awareness that objects continue to exist even when not perceived

preoperational stage
in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from 2-6/7yrs) during which a child learns to use language but doesn’t comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
-pretend play
-egocentrism
-language development

conservation
the principle that properties such as mass, volume, and numbers remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects

egocentrism
in Piaget’s theory, the preoperational child’s difficulty taking another’s point of view

theory of mind
people’s ideas about their own and others’ mental states- about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict

autism
a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others’ states of mind

concrete operational stage
in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development(6/7-11yrs) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
-conservation
-mathematical transformations

formal operational stage
in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (12 yrs) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
-abstract logic
-potential for mature moral reasoning

stranger anxiety
the fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning by 8 months of age

attachment
an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on seperation

critical period
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism’s exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development

imprinting
the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life

basic trust
according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy, said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers

self-concept
a sense of one’s identity and personal worth

aggression
physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone

X chromosome
the sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two and males have one

Y chromosome
the sex chromosome found in only in males

testosterone
most important male sex hormone; both sexes have it, but additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during puberty

role
a set of expectations(norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave

gender role
a set of expected behaviors for males and females

gender identity
one’s sense of being male or female

gender-typing
the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role

social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished

gender schema theory
the theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male or female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly

adolescence
the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence

puberty
the period of sexual maturation, during which a person becomes capable of reproducing

primary sex characteristics
the body structures that make sexual reproduction possible

secondary sex characteristics
non-reproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips and males voice quality and body hair.

menarche
the first menstrual period

identity
one’s sense of self; according to Erikson, the adolescent’s task is to solidify a self of self by testing and integrating various roles

intimacy
in Erikson’s theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships; a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood

menopause
the time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a women experiences as her ability to reproduce declines

Alzheimer’s disease
a progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and, finally, physical functioning

cross-sectional study
a study in which people of difference ages are compared to one another

longitudinal study
research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period

crystallized intelligence
one’s accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age

fluid intelligence
one’s ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood

social clock
the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement

personal space
The buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies

Kubler Ross Stages of Dying
denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance

trust vs mistrust
Erikson’s stage for infancy, if needs are dependably met, infants develop a sense of basic trust

atonomy vs shame and doubt
Erikson’s stage for toddlers, they learn to exercise will and do things for themselves or they doubt their abilities

initiative vs guilt
Erikson’s stage for preschoolers, they learn to initate tasks and carry out plans of they feel guilty about their efforts to be independent

competence vs inferiority
Erikson’s stage for elementary school, children learn the pleasure of applying themselves to tasks or feel inferior

identity vs role confusion
Erikson’s stage for adolescence, teens work at refining a sense of self by testing roles and them integrating them to form a single identity, of they become confused about who they are

intimacy vs isolation
Erikson’s stage for early adulthood, they struggle to form close relationships and to gain the capacity for intimate love, or they feel socially isolated

generatively vs stagnation
Erikson’s stage for middle adulthood, people discover a sense of contributing to the world, usually through family and work, or they may feel a lack of purpose

integrity vs despair
Erikson’s stage for late adulthood, when reflecting on his or her life, the older adult may feel a sense of satisfaction of failure

preconventional morality
Kohlberg’s moral stage for infancy through elementary, before age nine, most children obey either to avoid punishment or to gain concrete rewards

conventional morality
Kohlberg’s moral stage for adolescence through early adulthood, morality has usually evolved to a more conventional level that cares for other and upholds laws and social rules simply because they are laws or rules

post conventional morality
Kohlberg’s moral stage for middle through late adulthood, some of those who have developed abstract reasoning of formal thought may come to this third level. ________ morality affirms people’s agreed upon rights or follows what one personally perceives as basic ethical principles