AP Psych Unit 4 States of Consciousness

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Theories of Dream
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Activation-Synthesis Theory and Wish Fulfillment
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Age Regression
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a person is hypnotized so that they can relive a past experience (typically during childhood) which is supposed to help them resolve some internal problem. There are many problems associated with this including false memories.
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Posthypnotic Suggestion
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Statements or commands given to people while under hypnosis that the person acts on when in a full waking state. These statements need to be in positive form and be a behavior the person would do. Sometimes it is used to help people achieve goals such as losing weight or stopping an addiction or other unwanted behavior.
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Posthypnotic Amnesia
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A person’s inability to recall events or information obtained while in a hypnotic state. This can occur naturally or through hypnotic suggestion. This type of amnesia is temporary because he/she will eventually remember it.
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Hypnotic Suceptibility
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This is how easily a person can be hypnotized. It is the ability to focus attention totally on a task, to become imaginatively absorbed in it.
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Hypermnesia
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Exact or complete memory or recall of the past. The supposed enhancement of a person’s memory for past events through a hypnotic suggestion.
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Alcohol Myopia
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A condition that results when alcohol hampers attention, leading people to respond in simple ways to complex situations.
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Amphetamines
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A type of stimulant that stimulates neural activity causing sped-up bodily processes. Effects include increased heart rate, increased respiration, reduced appetite, and increased energy. Includes caffeine, nicotine, and cocaine.
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Barbiturates
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A type of depressant that depresses the activity of central nervous system, reducing anxiety, but it impairs memory and judgement. It is a tranquilizer. It is often used for medical purposes as a sedative and/or hypnotic.
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Depresssants
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drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow down body functions. It also diminishes your senses (makes you less alert)
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Hallucinogens
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psychedelic (\”mind-manifesting\”) drugs that distort perceptions and produce sensory images (i.e., hallucinations) although there are no sensory stimuli that should produce such images
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Opiates
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Used to relieve pain and create a euphoric state of consciousness. They depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety
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Stimulants
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Drugs that arouse or excite the nervous system and speed up bodily processes. Affect the body and the nervous system.
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Drug Classifications
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Amphetamines, Barbiturate, Depressants, Hallucinogens, Opiates, Stimulants
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Biological Rhythms
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periodic fluctuations in our bodies’ physiological states, including annual variations in appetite, 90-minute sleep cycles, and an circadian rhythms
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Circadian Rhythem
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the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle
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Circannual Rhythems
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the rhythm produced when the internal biological clock also operates on an annual basis
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Blindsight
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A condition in which a person can respond to a visual stimulus without consciously experiencing it
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Caffeine
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If taken in the evening, it may impair sleep. If used regularly and in heavy doses, it produces tolerance, Discontinuing heavy doses often produces withdrawal.
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Ethyl Alcohol
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nonflavored alcohol of 95 percent or 190 proof used for blending with straight whiskies and in making gin and liqueurs
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LSD
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A powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid (lysergic and diethylamide)
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Cannabis Sativa
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a strong-smelling plant from whose dried leaves a number of euphoriant and hallucinogenic drugs are prepared. It is the common hemp plant
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Cocaine
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Stimulant drug. When sniffed or injected, it enters the blood stream quickly. It produces a rush of euphoria that depletes the brain supply of neurotransmitters. It becomes addictive.
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Nicotine
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Stimulant drug in tobacco that increases heart rate and blood pressure, increases alertness, and relaxes muscles. Words in seconds and triggers the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine.
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Esctasy (MDMA)
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A synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but when short-term health risks and longer-term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition
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Cocktail Party Phenomenon
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the ability to attend selectively to one person’s speech in the midst of competing conversations
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Conscious
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It is our awareness of our own mental processes, such as our thoughts, feelings, and sensations.
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Preconscious
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in Freud’s theory, the level of consciousness in which thoughts and feelings are not conscious but are readily retrieveable to consciousness
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Unconscious
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the part of the mind that operates outside of conscious awareness but influences conscious thoughts, feelings, and actions
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Freudian Levels
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Conscious, Preciousness, and Unconscious
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Controlled Processing
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\”explicit\” thinking that is deliberate, reflective, and conscious.
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Automatic Processing
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unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings
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Daydreaming
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dreamlike thought process that occurs when a person is awake
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Dichotic Listening
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A task that requires a person to listen to one of two different messages being presented simultaneously, one to each ear, through headphones
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Dissociation Theory of Hypnosis
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Hilgard argued that hypnosis is a split in consciousness in which the mind operates independently of others. Allowing some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others.
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Social-Cognitive Theory of Hypnosis
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theory that assumes that people who are hypnotized are not in an altered state but are merely playing the role expected of them in the situation
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Dissociation
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a state in which some integrated part of a person’s life becomes separated from the rest of the personality and functions independently
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Hidden Observer
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hypnotized subject’s awareness of experiences that go unreported during hypnosis
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Divided Consciousness
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a state of awareness characterized by divided attention to two or more tasks or activities performed at the same time
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Drifting Consciousness
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a state of awareness characterized by drifting thoughts or mental imagery
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Drug Dependence
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inability to keep the intake of a drug or substance under control
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Drug Addiction
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A physical or psychological need for higher and higher doses of a drug.
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Physiological Dependence
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a condition in which the user has a chemical need for the drug
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Psychological Dependence
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a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions. An emotional need for a drug or substance that has no underlying physical need
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EEG
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measures the stages of sleep
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Focused Awareness
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a state of heightened alertness in which one is fully absorbed in the task at hand
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Hypnagogic Hallucinations
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vivid sensory phenomena that occur during the onset of sleep
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Hypnagogic Jerk
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involuntary movement while falling asleep
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Insomnia
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type of sleep disorder in which the person has trouble in one of the following areas of sleep: falling asleep, staying asleep throughout the night, or not being able to fall back asleep after a disturbance/awakening
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Hypersomnia
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Excessive sleepiness, as evidenced by prolonged nocturnal sleep, difficulty maintaining an alert awake state during the day, or undesired daytime sleep episodes.
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Narcolepsy
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A sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times
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Sleep Apnea
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a sleep disorder in which the person’s muscles become so relaxed that the airways become blocked and the person has trouble breathing and actually stops breathing momentarily)A
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REM Sleep Disorder
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a sleep disorder in which the sleeper verbally and physically responds to the dream story; the result of a failure of the brain mechanisms that normally suppress voluntary actions during REM sleep
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Restless Legs Syndrome
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urge to move our legs or other body parts, often while attempting to sleep
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Sleep Bruxism
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tooth clenching/grinding during sleep, abnormal wear, jaw pain, hypertrophy (excessive growth or development) of masseter muscle
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Jet Lag
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fatigue and sleep disturbance resulting from disruption of the body’s normal circadian rhythm as a result of jet travel
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Lucid Dreaming
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when a person dreaming becomes aware that he is dreaming, and is able to influence or control what happens. It may also be used in a therapeutic manner
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Manifest Content
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according to Freud, all the parts of the dream that we remember (the actual content). It’s not the stuff we associate with our dreams, but the actual story lines of the dreams
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Latent Content
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according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream
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Meditation
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deep, continued thought that focuses the mind on spiritual ideas
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Night Terror
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an emotional episode (usually in young children) in which the person awakens in terror with feelings of anxiety and fear but is unable to remember any incident that might have provoked those feelings. They night terrors do not occur in REM and there is no recollection of a bad dream.
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Nightmare
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A frightening or unpleasant anxiety dream that occurs during REM sleep.
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Phase Advance
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advance sleep x number of hours because day has been shortened
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Phase Delay
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delay sleep x number of hours because day has been lengthened, usually easier to do
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Pineal Gland
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located in the center of the brain, functioning to secrete melatonin and serotonin
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Hypthalamus
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plays an important role in regulating sleep-wake cycle
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Melatonin
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a hormone made by the Pineal gland and it helps control your sleep and wake cycle
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Restoration Model
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the theory that sleep recharges our run-down bodies and allows us to recover from physical and mental fatigue
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Preservation and Protection Model
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This theory asserts that human beings do not require the full 24 hour period within each day to satisfy basic needs such as necessary food and supplies, eating, and reproducing.
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Seasonal Affective Disorder
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Controversial disorder in which a person experiences depression during winter months and improved mood during spring. Can be treated using phototherapy, using bright light and high levels of negative ions.
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Sleep Inertia
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The post-awakening ‘mental lag’ or ‘sleep drunkenness’ experienced upon being woken from a very deep sleep/ The unpleasant feeling of grogginess that is sometimes experienced for a few minutes after awakening
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Sleep Paralysis
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A temporary condition in which a person is unable to move upon awakening in the morning or during the night.`
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Somnambulism
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The condition of walking or performing some other activity without awakening; also known as sleepwalking
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Sleep Talking
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speaking while sleeping that usually occurs during NREM sleep
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Stage 1
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Light stage of sleep, Can be considered the transition period between wakefulness and sleep. Produces high amplitude theta waves. This period last a brief time. If someone was awaken, they would say they weren’t really asleep. You have hypnagogic hallucinationd.
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Stage 2
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This period last about 20 minutes. The brain begins to produce burst of rapid, rhythmic brain wave activities (sleep spindles). Body temperature decreases and heart rate begins to slow. It also shows K-Complexes.
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Stage 3
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During this stage, delta waves emerge. It is the transitional period between light sleep and very deep sleep. Sleepwalking mostly occurs here. It is harder to arouse somebody from deep sleep, but if you are awaken you feel dopey and confused.
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Stage 4
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During this stage, delta waves are produced. It is a deep sleep that last approximately fro 30 minutes. Bedwetting and Sleepwalking are most likely to occur at the end. This stage replenishes your energy physically and mentally.
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REM Sleep (rapid eye movement, paradoxical sleep)
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A recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur. During this stage, there is increased respiration rate and increased brain activity.
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Stroop Effect
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Explains the decreased speed of naming the color of ink used to print words when the color of ink and the word itself are of different colors.
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Tolerance
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the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger doses before experiencing the drug’s effects
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Withdrawal
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the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug
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Wakefulness
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a periodic state during which you are conscious and aware of the world
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Coma
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a state of deep and often prolonged unconsciousness
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Vegetative State
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a state of minimal consciousness in which the eyes might be open, but the person is otherwise unresponsive.
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Activation-Synthesis Theory
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This theory states REM sleep triggers neural activity that evokes random visual memories, which our project brain weaves into stories.
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Wish Fulfillment
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Theory that states dreams provide a \”psychic safety valve\”- expressing otherwise unacceptable feeling; contains manifest content and a deeper layer of latent content. This theory lacks any scientific support and dreams may be interpreted differently.
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Beta Waves
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rapid brain waves; appear when a person is awake
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Alpha Waves
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The relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state.
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Theta Waves
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brain waves indicating the early stages of sleep
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Delta Waves
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the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep
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Sleep Spindles
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short bursts of brain waves (increased frequency) detected in stage 2 sleep
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K-Complexes
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Occur during stage 2, these are a single low frequency, high amplitude brain wave, that appear on EEG readings
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Psychoactive Drugs
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Chemical that changes perceptions and moods through their actions at the neural synapses
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Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN)
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cells cluster in the hypothalamus; it does its job by causing the brain’s pinneal gland to decrease the production of melatonin in the morning or increasing it in the evening
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Sleep
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A natural and periodic state of rest during which consciousness of the world is suspended
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Hallucinations
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false sensory experiences that occur without a sensory stimulus
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NREM (non rapid eye movement)
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encompasses all sleep stages except for REM sleep
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Ghrelin
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hunger-arousing hormone
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Leptin
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hunger supressing hormone
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Cortisol
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stress hormone
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Dreams
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a sequence of events, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping persons minds. They are so vivid, we may confuse them with reality.
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REM Rebound
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The tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation. This is created by repeated awakeness during REM
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Hypnosis
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A social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur
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Selective Attention
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the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus
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Addiction
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Compulsive cravings and use, despite adverse consequences
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Near-Death Experiences
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an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death
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Marijuana
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Relaxes, disinhibits, and may produce an euphoric high, mild hallucinogen. It impairs motor coordination, perceptual skills, and reaction time. It also disrupts memory functions and interferes with recall of information. It can be therapeutic for those who suffer pain, nausea, and severe weight loss.

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