AP Psych Unit 3

Enables muscle action, learning and memory. Alzheimer’s disease if ______ deteriorates.
Acetylcholine (ACH)
Influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion. Excess leads to schizophrenia and decreased leads to Parkinson’s.
Dopamine
Affects mood, hunger, sleep and arousal. Undersupply linked to depression. Prozac drugs raise ______ levels.
Serotonin
Helps control alertness and arousal. Undersupply can depress mood.
Norepinephrine
Major inhibitory neurotransmitter. Undersupply linked to seizures, tremors and insomnia.
GABA
Major excitatory neurotransmitter, involved with memory. Oversupply produces migraines or seizures.
Glutamate
Released in response to pain or exercise. Pain control. Neurotransmitter that allows bear to hibernate.
Endorphins
Cells that produce myelin.
Schwann Cells
Passes messages away from cell body
Axon
Cells life support center
Cell Body
Receives messages from other cells
Dendrites
Sends messages to other cells
Axon Terminals
Gap in myelin sheath where AP occures
Node of Ranvier
Organelle in cell body; contains genetic info
Nucleus
Covers axon; speeds up neural messages
Myelin Sheath
Fluid interior of a resting axon has an excess of negatively charged icons, while the fluid outside the axon membrane has more positively charged ions.
Resting Potential
Axons surface is selective about what it lets in.
Selective Permeable
Excitatory signals minus inhibitory signals exceed a minimum intensity
Threshold
Happens when positive ions flood in, which sends an electrical charge down the axon
Action Potential
Positively charged ions are pumped back outside
Refractory period
Sending neuron reabsorbs the excess neurotransmitter
Reuptake
Molecule may be similar enough to a neurotransmitter to bind its receptor site and mimic its effects (starts the firing)
Protagonist
Bind to receptors but their effects instead block a neurotransmitters functioning (stops the firing)
Antagonist
Controls heart rate and breathing
Medulla
Sensory switchboard
Thalamus
Coordinates voluntary movement
Cerebellum
Influences aggression and fear
Amygdala
Processes memory
Hippocampus
Influences hunger, regulates thirst, body temperature and sexual behavior
Hypothalamus
Actions such as awake/sleep cycle; alertness/arousal
Reticular Formation
Receives sensory input for touch (pressure, pain, heat) and body position
Parietal Lobe
Receives visual field information
Occipital Lobe
Involved in speaking, making plans and muscle movements
Frontal Lobe
Controls language reception, involved in comprehension
Wernicke Area
Controls language expression and directs muscle movements involved in speech
Broca Area
Lapses into a coma
What happens if you sever a cats reticular formation?
Hypothalamus
What brain structure provides a major link between the nervous system and the endocrine system?
Broca’s area
What brain area is primarily involved with controlling speech?
Sensing touch; seeing
Parietal loves are to _____ as the occipital lobes are to ______.
Occipital Lobes
Which region of the brain will a fMRI show as active when a person is looking at a photo?
Angular Gyrus
What brain area is primarily involved with reading aloud?
Seeing; hearing
Occipital Lobes are to _____ as the temporal lobes are to ______.
Parietal
Which lobe of the brain receives input that enables you to feel someone scratching your back?
Hippocampus
What part of the limbic system plays a role in the processing of new memories?
Motor cortex
An area at the rear of the frontal lobes that control voluntary movements is called …
Medulla
Your life would be immediately threatened if you suffered destruction of the…
Breathing; walking
Medulla is to the control of ______ as the cerebellum is to the control of _____.
Pons
What structure of the brain stem helps coordinates movements and lies above the medulla?
Amygdala
What part of the limbic system plays a role in emotions such as aggression and fear?
Thalamus
What brain structure receives information from all senses except smell?
Reticular Formation
Which region of your brain stem plays a role in arousing you to a state of alertness when someone nearby mentions your name?
Cerebral cortex
Thin surface layer of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebrum is called
Wernicke’s Area
Which brain area is primarily involved with understanding and producing meaningful speech?
Selectively permeable
When a neuron is resting and doesn’t allow positive sodium ions to pass through
Protagonist
When a drug mimics the action of a neurotransmitter
Antagonist
When a drug prevents a neuron from firing
Myelin Sheath
What speeds up the neural transmission of a neuron?
Reuptake inhibitor
Type of drug that prevents the sending neuron from reabsorbing excess neurotransmitters
Sympathetic
Part of our nervous system that prepares our body for fight or flight
Sensory nueron
Type of neuron that sends information from our eyes to our brain
ACH
Lack of this can cause Alzheimer’s
Dendrites
Part of the neuron that receives information from a sending neuron
Synapse
The space between a sending and receiving nueron
Threshold
Minimum level of stimulation needed for a neuron to fire
Glial cells
Provide life-supporting nutrients to nerve cells
Mobilizes energy in stress situations. Raises blood sugar, speeds up heartbeat and stops digestion system.
What happens to our body when the sympathetic nervous system kicks in?
Decreases heartbeat, lowers blood sugar, starts digestion system up again.
What happens when the parasympathetic nervous system calms us down?
Serotonin
Lack of this neutransmitter can lead to depression
Dopamine
Lack of this neurotransmitter can lead to Parkinson’s disease
Sleep, movement, neuron activity in check.
What is GABA responsible for?
Peripheral nervous system
The somatic nervous system is a part of the
Autonomic nervous system
The sympathetic and parasympathetic make up the
right
What hemispheres help us understand optical illusions?
Right
Which hemisphere is responsible for facial recognition?
Medulla
Part of your brain that controls breathing and heartbeat
Cerebllum
Part of your brain that controls working and balance
EEG
Brain scan the doctor would use to study brain waves during sleep
Cerebral cortex
Thin layer of neural cells that cover the cerebrum
Laterialisation
Hemispheric specialization is also known as
PET scan
Brain scan that shows the concentration of glucose in active brain refions
fMRI
Brain scan that would help you determine which areas of the brain are active during specific tasks
Lips, because of all the muscular functions involved.
What occupied a larger area on my sensory cortex? Lips or knee? Why?
Left
Which hemisphere is largely responsible for speech?
Brainstem
What brain region is the oldest?
Limbic system (Cerebral cortex)
What brain region is the newest?
Frontal lobe. His whole personality changed, and his mannerisms.
Phineas Gage showed damage to what area of the brain? How do you know?
Brain plasticity
A blind persons sense of touch can invade their visual cortex, what is this an example of?
Angular gyrus
This is damaged if I can’t read aloud.
Frontal lobe
Motor cortex is located in the…
Parietal Lobe
Sensory cortex is located in the
Hypothalamus
Brain structure that works closely with the endocrine system
Wernicke’s Area
“Mother is with her working for homework donuts yesterday’s telephone,” is an example of?
Nice job! You got this. If you need help, think of brain plasticity.
Name a few split brain limitations.
Genes and environment
Nature vs. Nurture is debating the importance of
Neurogenesis
Process for forming new neurons in the brain
46 and 23
How many chromosomes does a human have? How many does a sperm cell contain?
Chromosomes
What’s larger, chromosomes or DNA?
Identical twins have the same genes. Fraternal twins do not have the same genes.
What is the difference between an identical and fraternal twins?
Basic building block of the nervous system
Neuron
Carry information to muscles and glands
Motor Neuron
Carry information to brain and spinal cord
Sensory neurons
brain and spinal cord
CNS
Sensory and motor neurons
PNS
Help arouse the body in stress
Adrenal Glands
Impairment of language, caused by left hemisphere damage to broca or wernicke’s area
Asphasia
Fibers that connect left and right brain
Split brain
Simultaneous information is processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks
Dual processing
Broca’s area
Speaking words
Angular Gyrus
Seeing words
Wernicke’s area
Hearing words
Sends information from the left half of the visual brain to the right hemisphere. Vice versa.
Left half of the brain does what (visually)
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