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ap psych unit 12 & 13

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What are characteristics of abnormal behavior.
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dysfunction, deviance, distress, maladaptation, result of distorted thoughts
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GAD
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low grade anxiety due to sympathetic nervous system arousal
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OCD
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anxiety disorder in which rituals are performed to reduce anxiety inducing thoughts
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Phobia
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can be specific or social
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PTSD
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marked by hyper vigilance, nightmares, and reliving of trauma
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Panic
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intense feelings of dread and anxiety
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Major Depressive
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marked by two weeks or more of lack of pleasure, reduced mood, and lack of concentration
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Dysthymia
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low grade depression lasting more than two years
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SAD
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lack of light induced depression
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DID
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formerly known as multiple personality disorder
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Dissociative Fugue
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“becoming” someone else and living a whole new life
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Schizophrenia
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marked by hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking, and inappropriate affect
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Conversion
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man goes blind after seeing his parents have sex although there is nothing wrong with his eyes
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Illness Anxiety Disorder aka Hypochondriasis
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feeling you are sick when you are not
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Antisocial Personality Disorder
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no conscience
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Narcissistic Personality Disorder
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need for admiration, grandiose sense of self, lack of empathy
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An important feature of client-centered therapy is
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active listening
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In which form of therapy is unwanted behavior systematically associated with unpleasant experiences?
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aversive conditioning
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Which form of therapy is most likely to emphasize the importance of examining a person’s role within a social system?
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family therapy
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In treating alcohol dependency, therapists have clients consume alcohol that contains a nausea-producing drug. This technique is known as
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aversive conditioning
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One good alternative to antidepressant drugs is
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aerobic exercise
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Aaron Beck has used gentle questioning intended to reveal depressed clients’ irrational thinking. His therapeutic approach best illustrates
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cognitive thinking
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Which drugs appear to produce therapeutic effects by blocking receptor sites for dopamine?
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antipsychotic drugs
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Carl Rogers is known for the development of
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client-centered therapy
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Two counterconditioning techniques for replacing unwanted responses include
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aversive conditioning and exposure therapy
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Which form of therapy would most likely help depressed patients by teaching them how to resolve disagreements with their friends?
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interpersonal psychotherapy
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Instead of focusing on the cure of psychological disorders, ________ therapies seek to promote personal growth and self-fulfillment.
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humanistic
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A physician who specializes in the treatment of psychological disorders is called a
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psychiatrist
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Deep-brain stimulation has been reported to provide relief from
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depression
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According to psychoanalysts, resistance refers to the
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blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material during therapy.
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Psychological research on the principles of learning has most directly influenced the development of
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behavior therapy
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Antidepressant drugs are increasingly being prescribed for the treatment of
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anxiety disorders
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Xanax and Ativan are ________ drugs.
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antianxiety
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Helping people gain insight into the unconscious origins of their disorder is a central aim of
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psychoanalysis
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An integrated therapy that aims to modify both self-defeating thinking and maladaptive actions is known as
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cognitive-behavior therapy
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Which of the following therapists introduced the use of free association?
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Sigmund Freud
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Mental health therapies that involve prescribed drugs or other procedures that act directly on a patient’s nervous system are
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biomedical therapies
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The expression toward a therapist of feelings linked with earlier relationships is known as
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transference
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Insight therapies aim to improve psychological functioning by
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increasing patients’ awareness of their own motives and defenses.
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Light exposure therapy was developed to relieve symptoms of
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depression
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Carl Rogers referred to a caring, nonjudgmental attitude as
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unconditional positive regard
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Which of the following procedures is most likely to result in a loss of memory?
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electroconvulsive therapy
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Which drugs are designed to depress central nervous system activity?
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anti anxiety drugs
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A procedure that trains people to make new responses to stimuli that currently trigger unwanted responses is called
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counterconditioning
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SSRIs are prescribed to
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elevate arousal and mood
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Prozac, Zoloft, and Paxil are called SSRIs because they
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slow the normal reabsorption of excess serotonin from synapses
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Teaching people to stop blaming themselves for failures and negative circumstances beyond their control is of most direct concern to ________ therapists.
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cognitive
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Which of the following biomedical treatments provides some of the benefits of ECT without triggering seizures or memory loss?
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repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation
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Which form of psychotherapy is especially effective in coping with depression and reducing suicide risk?
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cognitive
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Electroconvulsive therapy has proven to be effective in the treatment of
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depression
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Lithium has been found to be especially effective in the treatment of
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bipolar disorder
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Sigmund Freud introduced a form of psychotherapy known as
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psychoanalysis
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Antipsychotic drugs have proved helpful in the treatment of
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schizophrenia
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A token economy represents an application of the principles of
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operant conditioning
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Some antidepressants block the reuptake or breakdown of both serotonin and another neurotransmitter, norepinephrine. These antidepressants are called
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dual-action drugs
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Which of the following procedures has typically resulted in patients becoming permanently lethargic?
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lobotomy
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Repeatedly introducing people to things they fear and avoid is most characteristic of
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exposure therapies
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Group therapy is typically more effective than individual therapy for
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enabling people to discover that others have problems similar to their own
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Tardive dyskinesia is often associated with long-term use of drugs that occupy certain ________ receptor sites.
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dopamine
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Dual-action antidepressant drugs work by increasing the availability of
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norepinephrine and serotonin
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The biomedical treatment most widely used today is
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drug therapy
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Praising socially withdrawn children when they have eye contact with others and ignoring them after a temper tantrum best illustrates an application of
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operant conditioning
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An abnormal shrinkage of cerebral tissue is most likely to be associated with
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schizophrenia
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Exhibiting two or more distinct and alternating personalities is a symptom of a(n)
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DID
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Cognitive changes that accompany depression include a(n)
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increased expectation of negative outcomes
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Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are major symptoms of
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ADHD
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A major depressive disorder is most likely to be characterized by
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feelings of personal worthlessness
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Compulsions are best described as
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repetitive behaviors
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Hypochondriasis also known as illness anxiety disorder is characterized by
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the misinterpretation of normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease
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Psychiatrists and psychologists are most likely to consider socially unusual behavior as disordered if it is
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personally distressful
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Dissociative disorders are most likely to be characterized by
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disruptions in conscious awareness and sense of identity.
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An anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts and actions is called a(n)
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OCD
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The discovery that psychologically disordered behavior could result from syphilis infections facilitated the credibility and acceptance of
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the medical model
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Obsessions are
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offensive and unwanted thoughts that persistently preoccupy a person.
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In which of the following disorders is a person continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic arousal?
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GAD
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Compared with men, women are much more likely to be diagnosed as suffering from
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depression
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An antisocial personality disorder is most likely to be characterized by
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lack of guilt feelings
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Psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes are called
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mood disorders
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False beliefs of persecution that may accompany schizophrenia are called
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delusions
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In which disorder do people alternate between states of lethargic hopelessness and wild overexcitement?
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bipolar disorder
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A conversion disorder is most likely to be characterized by
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very specific physical symptoms that have no apparent physiological basis.
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A psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a bodily form without apparent physical cause is a
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somato form disorder
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Which group of severe disorders is characterized by disorganized thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions?
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schizophrenia
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A fundamental problem with the diagnostic labeling of psychologically disordered behaviors is that the labels often
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bias our perceptions of the labeled person