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AP Psych Social Psychology Review

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Social Psychology
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the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
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Attribution Theory
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the theory that we explain someone’s behavior by crediting either the situation or the person’s disposition
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Fundamental Attribution Error
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the tendency for observers, when analyzing another’s behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
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Attitude
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feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events
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Central Route Persuasion
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attitude change path in which interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts
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Peripheral Route Persuasion
Peripheral Route Persuasion
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attitude change path in which people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker’s attractiveness
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Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon
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the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
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Role
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a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
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Cognitive Dissonance Theory
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the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when our attitudes are inconsistent with our actions
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Conformity
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adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard
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Normative Social Influence
Normative Social Influence
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influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
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Informational Social Influence
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influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality because they want to be right or do something correctly
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Social Facilitation
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when a person performs a task that is easy to them better in the presence of others
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Social Loafing
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the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
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Deindividuation
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the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
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Group Polarization
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the enhancement of a group’s prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group (attitudes become more extreme after interacting with like-minded individuals)
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Groupthink
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the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
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Culture
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the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
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Norm
Norm
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an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior; they prescribe “proper” behavior
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Prejudice
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an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members; it generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action
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Stereotype
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a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people
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Discrimination
Discrimination
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(Social) unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members
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Ingroup
Ingroup
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“Us”—people with whom we share a common identity
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Outgroup
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“Them”—those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup
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Ingroup Bias
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the tendency to favor our own group
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Scapegoat Theory
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the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
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Other-Race Effect
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the tendency to recall faces of one’s own race more accurately than faces of other races; also called the cross-race effect and the own-race bias
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Just-World Phenomenon
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the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
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Aggression
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physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone; includes hostile and instrumental
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Frustration-Aggression Principle
Frustration-Aggression Principle
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the principle that frustration—the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal—creates anger, which can generate aggression
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Mere Exposure Effect
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the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them
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Passionate Love
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an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship
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Companionate Love
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the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
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Equity
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a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it
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Self-Disclosure
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revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
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Altruism
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unselfish regard for the welfare of others
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Bystander Effect
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the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present (due to diffusion of responsibility)
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Social Exchange Theory
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the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize cost
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Reciprocity Norm
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an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them
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Social-Responsibility Norm
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an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them
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Conflict
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a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
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Social Trap
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a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
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Mirror-Image Perceptions
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mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive
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Self Fulfilling Prophecy
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a belief that leads to its own fulfillment
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Superordinate Goals
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shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
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GRIT
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Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction—a strategy designed to decrease international tensions; “give a little to get a little”