AP Psych-Sleep and Psychoactive Drugs

define conciousness
awareness of yourself and your environment, including internal and external stimuli (more than 1 type of awareness)

what are the 5 levels of consciousness?
-conscious mind
-preconscious mind
-subconscious mind
-non conscious mind
-unconscious mind

define sensory awareness
conscious or aware of things outside yourself

define direct inner awareness
being aware of things inside you

define sense of self
aware of ourselves and our existence

conscious mind:(aka?)
aka waking consciousness
-those things of which we are immediately aware

preconscious mind:
awareness of those things we can access if needed
-ex. memory of favorite toy as a child

subconscious mind:
ex. freudian slip, daydreaming, road hypnosis

freudian slip
slip of the tongue by which it is thought a person unintentionally reveals his or her true feelings

nonconscious mind:
those things our bodies do automatically, w/out thought
-ex. breathing, digestion

unconscious mind:
those things our bodies do which we are unaware of
-ex. Id, ego, superego, dreams, hypnosis

how many times does our body pass though each level of consciousness each day?
multiple times a day

define circadian rhythms:
the daily cycle our bodies experience each day
-we experience varying levels of alertness over a roughly 24 hr period

which biological rhythm influences the time you wake and go to sleep, eat, and are most alert, among many daily activities?
circadian rhythms (controls drowsiness and alertness throughout the day)

define ultradian rhythms:
-less than a day in length
-influence urination, day dreaming, or hunger
-also effects periods of light & deep sleep

define infradian rhythm:
-greater then one day

example of an infradian rhythm:
menstrual cycle (28 days)

define circannual rhythm:
-last 1 year+
-ex. Hibernation and seasonal affective disorder (SAD)

what is SAD(seasonal affective disorder)?
-severe depression during the winter months
-seasonal variation in the production of melatonin

what’s the most well known biological cycle?
-biological rhythm, sleep and dreaming

how do we sleep?
sleep (& alertness) are triggered by brain structures in the limbic system and brain stems

how is melatonin involved with how we sleep?
levels of the hormone melatonin are influenced by the suprachiamatic nucleus of the hypothalamus and the pineal gland

how is the reticular formation involved with how we sleep?
it’s believed to activate higher regions of the brain, causing period of REM sleep and other periods of alertness

what two theories are associated with why we sleep?
restorative theory & evolutionary theory

restorative theory (why do we sleep?):
recuperate from the wear and tear of the day
-sleep is needed for optimal physical and mental functions

evolutionary theory (why do we sleep?):
keep us protected from the dangers of the night
-sleep patterns adapt to our individual needs

how much sleep do we need?
varies by age and by individual

define sleep deprivation:
can cause physical, sensory and cognitive disruptions, & in animal studies, has been shown to lead to death

what happens in sleep?
a person passes through varying stages of alertness, measurable by diff brain wave patterns

how is sleep measured?
by and EEG (electroencephalogram) that changes in brain wave patterns reinforce scientists theories of changes in consciousness

NREM sleep-
stages 1-4

stage 1 of sleep:
-breathing is slowed and brain waves become irregular
-it’s easy to wake the person, who will insist they are not asleep
-rarely lasts longer than 5 min

stage 2 of sleep:
-brain wave cycle slows
-1st time through stage 2 lasts about 20 min

stage 3 & 4 of sleep:
-slow wave sleep
-1st time through stage 4 is about 30 min
-rejuvenating sleep~feels refreshed when waking up

REM sleep:
-rapid eye movement as eyes move quickly back and forth
-pulse quickens and so does breathing
-brain wave patterns are similar to waking patterns
-vivid dreaming occurs in REM sleep

REM sleep aka…
paradoxical sleep

paradoxical sleep:
one’s bodily processes are close to that of being awake
-however, the brainstem blocks all muscle movement (muscle atonia)

muscle atonia
Paralysis of the muscles to stop us from acting out our dreams.

how long does 1 sleep cycle last, approximately?
90 minutes

beta waves…
awake-alert, & REM sleep

what stage do alpha waves occur in and what happens
stage 1, hypnogogichallucinations may occur

hypnagogic hallucinations
are unusual sensory phenomena experienced just before or during awakening. Their better known mirror image, hypnagogic hallucinations, are vivid and frightening episodes of seeing or hearing or feeling phantom sensations while falling asleep (or in early stage 1 sleep).

what stage do theta waves happen in and what phenomena occurs?
sleep 2, sleep spindles

delta waves….
stage 3 & 4

sleep disorders
many people suffer disturbed sleep patterns periodically
-others suffer from a variety of sleep disorders that can have a serious physical or psychological effects

insomnia:
-recurring problems falling asleep or staying asleep
-affects about 10% of the population
-sleeping pills tend to inhibit or suppress REM sleep; worsen the problem

who suffers from insomnia?
women and those with a racing brain suffer from insomnia more often than those men

sleep apnea:
characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and consequent momentary reawakening

what sleep disorder disrupts circadian rhythms?
sleep apnea

who does sleep apnea tend to effect?
ppl who are overweight, or those who have heavy chests
-ppl who suffer can wear a breathing mask at night to help

narcolepsy:
-characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks
-person may lapse directly into REM sleep
-also may experience sudden loss of muscular control
-psychologist aren’t sure why people suffer-believe theres a genetic abnormality that causes it

somnambulism (sleep walking):
-starts in the deep stages or N-REM sleep
-person may b able to talk, walk. or complete other activities
-rarely has any memory of event
-occurs most in young boys and most ppl grow out of it as their CNS becomes more developed

night terrors
-characterized by high arousal & appearance of being terrified
-happens during stage 4 sleep; mostly in children
-the individual seldom remembers event
-NOT a nightmare

other examples of sleep disorders:
-Bruxism: teeth grinding
-Enuresis: Bed wetting
-Myoclonus: sudden jerk of a body part occurring during stage 1 sleep; everyone has occasional episodes of myoclonus

when does most dreaming occur?
REM sleep

does everyone dream? what percent of dreams are forgotten?
yes, 95% of dreams are forgotten

quality of dreams:
vary vastly

why do we dream?
# of theories
-scientists agree that we NEED to dream

what are the theories of why we dream?
-information process theory
-activation synthesis theory
-Freud’s wish-fulfillment theory
-cognitive development theory
-others: problem solving theory; survival strategy theory

describe information-processing theory:
research suggests REM sleep helps memory storage
-dreams serve as a function by sorting and sifting through the day’s experiences

describe activation-synthesis theory:
dreams are the mind’s attempt to make sense of random neural activity in the brain as one sleeps

describe Freud’s wish-fulfillment theory:
dreamers dream of repressed desires
^and to interpret these… one uses manifest and latent content

what is manifest content?
relating to Freud’s wish-fulfillment theory
-the literal content of the dream

what is latent content?
relating to Freud’s wish-fulfillment theory
-the disguised meaning of the dream

describe cognitive development:
dreams part of the maturation process
-reflection of normal cognitive development

problem-solving theory:
-Webb and Cartwright (1978)
-solving problem after sleep-“sleep on it”
-manifest content is real content

survival strategy theory:
-winston (1997)
-memories of new experiences are placed close together w/older memories to form a strategy for survival

define hypnosis:
the process of creating a trance-like state
-some argue that it’s a distinctly separate state of consciousness
-diff from sleeping, daydreaming or other states
-seems real to the person who experiences the state

hypnotic trances include…. (5)
heightened suggestibility; dissociation; vivid imagery; enhanced memory; post hypnotic suggestibilty

what is dissociation
A split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others.

the social influence theory aka…
role play

what is the social influence theory? (hypnosis)
a person’s physiological state DOES NOT change under hypnosis
-social factors influence ppl to believe hypnosis will work and act accordingly

what is the divided consciousness theory (hypnosis)?
during hypnosis, consciousness splits w/ 1 part susceptible to the hypnotic state
-the other part, the Hidden Observer, retains awareness of reality

who proposed the divided consciousness theory?
Hilgard

which hypnosis theory advocates that hypnosis is an ALTERED STATE of consciousness?
divided consciousness theory

describe hypnotiz ability:
differences in the ability of ppl to become hypnotized
-varies from person to person
-varies from situation to situation

limits to hypnotic suggestions:
-hypnosis can lead ppl to certain behaviors, but does NOT CAUSE behaviors
-hypnotic suggestions usually involve sensations, thoughts, emotions, and a wide variety of behaviors

define psychoactive drugs:
chemical substances that affect the CNS, impacting cognition, emotion and behavior

what kind of dependence can psychoactive drugs have?
physical and psychological

physical dependence/addiction:
-physiological need for a drug
-marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms

psychological dependence:
-a psychological need to use a drug
-for ex. to relieve negative emotions

what are the 4 types of psychoactive drugs?
-depressants
-stimulants
-hallucinogens
-opiates

what are depressants?
drugs that reduce neural activity

2 examples of depressants:
alcohol and barbiturates

what do depressants do to the body?
-slows body functions
-give people a sense of euphoria (can have a neg effect)
^slows reactions, impairs memory, inhibits judgment

what are stimulants?
drugs that excite neural activity
-speeds up body functions

4 examples of stimulants:
caffeine, cocaine, nicotine, amphetamines

where is nicotine found?
-found in tobacco leaves, structurally similar to acetylcholine

describe what nicotine does to the body:
-binds to nerve receptors and makes nerve cells fire more frequently
-causes heart rate to increase
-extremely addictive

what do amphetamines do to ppl and their bodies?
-stimulate neural activity, causing accelerating body functions
-associated w/energy and mood changes
-help ppl stay awake and reduce appetite
-extremely addictive

what does cocaine do to the body?
-produces feeling of pleasure, reduces hunger, deadens pain and boosts self-confidence

what do the effects of cocaine depend on?
depends on dosage, form, expectations, personality and situation

define hallucinogens:
distort perceptions and induce sensory images in the absence of sensory input
ex. psychedelic and marijuana

psychedelic ex’s
producing an unnatural mental state
mind manifesting; LSD, MDMA (ecstasy), THC, PPC

what are ex of opiates?
-opium and it’s derivatives
^morphine, codeine, methadane, heroin

describe opiates:
-serve as agonist for endorphin’s
-depress neural activity, lessening pain and anxiety
-elevates mood
-highly addictive

define tolerance:
-diminishing effect w/regular use
-a higher dose of the drug, may be required to attain the desired effect

define withdrawal:
-discomfort and distress that follow discontinued use
-can include headache, dehydration, sweating among other symptoms

what are the 3 primary parts of the brain that drugs affect?
1. Brainstem/spinal cord (survival functions)
2. Limbic system (controls emotional responses)
3. Cerebral cortex (lobes)

what causes a “high” or euphoria?
flood of dopamine

define anabolic:
-growing or building
-athletes use anabolic steroids

how much do we sleep in a lifetime?
1/3 of our life

define EEG
electroencephalogram
-shows how active the brain is at each moment
-a physiological measurement
-record of the electrical signals picked up @ several dif locations on scalp

alpha waves characteristics:
alpha waves characteristics:
-smooth/regular (10 peaks/sec)
-when person is awake but relaxed

beta waves characteristics:
beta waves characteristics:
-waves faster than alpha (15-45 peaks/sec)
-irregular
-when person opens eyes and focuses attention on something

EEG tracings during sleep:
-waves recorded on the tracings got progressively slower/lower in frequency and larger (higher amp) during the 1st hours or so after the person fell asleep

high frequency/low amp=
drowsy

increasing relation of frequency and amp=
just fallen asleep

low frequency/high amp=
deep sleep

which stage is considered a transition from wakefulness into sleep?
stage 1

what are sleep spindles?
brief bursts of rapid brain activity in the midst of the overall slowing of the EEG waves

at what point is someone truly asleep?
sleep spindles-stage 2

what is stage 3 marked by the appearance of?
low frequency (3 peaks/sec) and high amp waves called DELTA waves

what percentage of the EEG tracings do delta waves make up in stage 3?
10-50%

what is the deepest stage of sleep?
stage 4

in which stage is it almost all delta waves?
stage 4

what is the pattern for stages repeated?
after staying in stage 4 for a short time you move back through stages in a reverse order

what are waves like in REM sleep?
fast, small waves indicating intense brain activity

when do sleep thoughts occur?
in slow wave sleep-stages 2, 3 and 4

sleep thoughts..
50% report nothing was happening when awaked or that they were thinking about something they had been concerned about the previous day

define true dream and when does it happen?
doing something in a dream; REM sleep

define sleep paralysis and when does it happen?
motor neurons are inhibited (ppl who walk/talk do so in stage 4 not REM); REM sleep

when do people sleep walk or sleep talk?
stage 4

REM sleep, generally an “active” state of sleep, is accompanied by which paradoxical characteristics?
lowered muscle tone

A student participates in a month-long sleep study designed to examine free-running circadian rhythms. If all time cues are removed, the student’s total sleep-wake cycle is likely to
average about 25 hrs

define REM rebound:
the lengthening and increasing frequency and depth of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep which occurs after periods of sleep deprivation. When people have been prevented from experiencing REM, they take less time than usual to attain the REM state

define post-hypnotic suggestion:
A suggestion made to a hypnotized person that specifies an action to be performed after awakening, often in response to a cue.

The psychological effects of alcohol are powerfully influenced by the user’s
expectations

Those who study hypnosis AGREE that it is a state of:
heightened suggestibility

if you’re daydreaming what brain wave activity do you show?
theta

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