Ap psych Memory (ch 9)

Flashcard maker : Amber Moore
memory
the persistance of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of informaiton
flashbulb memory
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment of event
encoding
the processing of information into the memory systems, for example, by extracting meaning
storage
the retention of encoded information over time
retrieval
the process of getting information out of memory storage
sensory information
the immediate very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
short term memory
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing before the information is stored or forgotten
long term memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system including knowledge skills and experiments
working memory
a newer understanding of short term memory that involved conscious active processing of incoming auditor and visual spatial information and of information retrieved from long term memory
automatic processing
unconscious endowing of incidental information such as space time and frequency and of well learned information such as word meanings
effortful processing
encoding that required attention and conscious effort
rehearsal
the conscious repetition of information eat her to maintain it in consciousness or encode it for storage
spacing effect
the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long term retention than is achieved through masses study of practice
serial position effect
out tendency to recall best the least and first items in a list
visual encoding
the encoding of picture images
acoustic encoding
the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
semantic encoding
the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words
imagery
mental pictures, a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially why combined with semantic encoding
mnemonics
memory aids especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organization devices
chunking
organizing items into familiar managing units often occurred automatically
iconic memory
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli, a photographic or picture image memory lasting no more than a few tenth of a second
echoic memory
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli, if attention is elsewhere sounds and words can still be recalled writhing 3 or 4 seconds
long term potentiation LTP
an increase in synapses firing potential after brief rapid stimulation believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory
amnesia
the loss of memory
implicitly memory
retention independent of conscious recollection
implicitly memory is also called
procedural memory
explicit memory
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare
explicit memory is also called
declarative memory
hippocampus
a neural center that is located in the limbic system and helps process explicit memories for storage
recall
a measure or memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier as on a fill in the blank test
recognition
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned as on a multiple choice test
relearning
a memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning the amount of time saved when learning material for the second time
priming
the activation often unconsciously of particular associations in memory. Ask a friend two rapid fire questions
déjà vu
the eerie sense that I’ve experienced this before cues form the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience
mood congruent memory
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with ones current good of bad mood
proactive interference
the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
retroactive interference
the disruptive effect of new leaning of the recall of old informations
repression
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes fro conscious anxiety shrouding thoughts and feeling and memories
Misinformation effect
incorporating misleading information into ones memory of an event
source amnesia
attributing to the wrong source of an event we have experience heard about, read about or imagined (source misattribution) source amnesia along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories
what two things are at the heart of many false memories
source amnesia, and misinformation effect
to remember an event we must get information into out brain, which is called
encoding
to we remember an event we must retain the information in our brain, which is called
storage
to remember an event we must get back out the information stored in our brain, this is called
retrieval
incoming stimuli along with information we retrieve from long term memory becomes
short term memory (working memory)
the episode buffer
funnels input to the central executive (from immediate expeirences sensory input
without conscious effort you automatically process information about
space, time and frequency (and well leaned material)
without conscious effort you automatically process information about space:
while reading your textbook you often encode the place on a page where certain material appears,later, when struggling o recall the information you may visualize its location
without conscious effort you automatically process information about time:
while going about your day you unintentionally note the sequence of the days events later when you realize that you left your coat somewhere you recreate the sequence of what you did that day and retrace your steps
without conscious effort you automatically process information about frequency:
you effortlessly keep track of how many times things happen thus enabling you to realize this is the third time I’ve run into her today
memory is best remembered how long before sleep
an hour before, not seconds or minutes before
you learn the first few names of people you meet because
they interfered with your learning of other names, and you also rehearsed those names more then the names you learned later
when interpreting verbal information how we interpret the information eye-screem is based on
our past experiences, ice cream or I scream
when words are organized in a group memory is
2-3 times better
if you can master a chapters concepts in section your overall recall
will increase (using an outline format also helps)
the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of informations
memory
these are attached to emotionally significant moments or events, differ from most other memories in their striking clarity
flashbulb memories
what suggests we register fleeting sensory memories, some or which are processed into on screen short term memories, a tiny fraction of which are encoded for long term memory and possibly later retrieval
Atkinson shift in three stage model
the limits of the three stage model for memory is that we
sometimes register information automatically bypassing the first two stages, and they use the term short term memory instead of working memory
why do contemporary researchers (supporters of the working memory model) prefer the term working memory instead of short term memory (like supports or the three stage model would prefer)
because it emphasizes a more active role in this second processing stage where we rehearse and manipulate information, associating new stimuli with older stored memories
what does ur brain do during the working memory/short term memory stage
rehearse and manipulate information, associating new stimuli with older stored memories
this model uses visual spatial and auditory subsystems, corrida aged by a central executive processor that focuses attention where needed
working memory model
we register well learned information such as words in our native language by
automatic processing
finding meaning in Madrid and ornamentation requires
conscious attention and deliberate effort or rehearsal called effortful processing
this is our tendency to forget through failure to encode what the person ahead of us in line has said because we are focusing on what we will say in our upcoming turn
The next in line effect
this is our tendency to retain information and what easily if we practice it repeatedly over spaced study then if we would practice it in one long session
The spacing effect
this is our tendency to recall the first and last items in a long list more easily then we recall the intervening items
The serial position effect
which type of coating is a deeper form of processing van visible and acoustic encoding
semantic
we process of verbal information best when we
coated semantically especially if we apply the self reference of fact making information relevant to me
self reference the fact
making information relevant to your self makes it sick with you and allows you to remember it better
how does encoding imagery aid effortful processing
vivid images are very memorable
we tend to remember concrete nouns better than abstract nouns because
we can associate both an image and meeting with gorilla but only meeting with process
many mnemonic devices (memory strategies or aids) rely on
imagery
A manometer device can trap items into memory by combining
Visual encoding (imagining a series of vivid images) and acoustic encoding ( and memorable rhyme)
we remember organize information better than we do random data and to ways to organize information are
Chungking and hierarchies
in this form of organization we closer information into familiar manageable units such as words into sentences
chunking
and this form of organization we process information by dividing it into logical level beginning with the most general and moving to the most specific
hierarchy
Learning the persists indicates the existence of
memory for that learning
memories for surprising significant moments that are especially clear I called
flashbukb memories
like other memories flashbulb memories
can err
both human and computer memory can be viewed as
informationg and processing system that perform three tasks encoding retrieval and storage
The classical model of memory has been Atkinson and Sheiffins
three stage processing model
cording to the three stage processing model we first record information as
fleeting sensory memory
according to the three stage processing model, after recording information as a fleeting sensory memory we
process it into short-term memory
according to the three stage processing model wants memory is processed into short-term memory it is
encoded their rehearsal into long-term memory for later retrieval
short-term memory has been clarified by the concept of working memory which focuses more on the
processing of briefly stored information
short term are working memory has both
auditory and visual spatial subsystems
short-term and working memory have auditory and visual spatial subsystems that are
coordinated by the central executive processor, with the help of the episode buffer, allowing us to process images and words simultaneously
Brain scans show that the frontal lobe’s are active during
complex thinking
rain scans show that the parietal and temporal lobe’s are active when
auditory and visual information is in working memory
encoding that does not require constant attention or effort is called
automatic processing
some processing requires effort at first but with
with experience and practice it becomes effortless
things that are typically encoded with little or no effort
how many times something happen, the location of things, your day in a sequence of events
encoding that requires attention and effort is called
effortful processing
with novel information: conscious repetition, or rehearsal
boost memory
it pioneering researcher and verbal memory was
Ebbingnaus
and one experiment Ebbingnaus found that the longer he studied a list of nonsense syllables the
fewer number of repetitions he required to relearn it later
after material has been learned additional repetition or over learning will
increase retention
when people go around a circle reading words their course memories are for the
most recent information heard
when people go around a circle reading words their course memories are for the most recent information heard this is due to
The next in line effect which is when you try to remember what I said and don’t pay attention to the person before you because you’re trying to think of what you’re going to say and you do not process what they say
memories studies also revealed that distributed rehearsal is more effective for retention this is called
spacing effect
The tendency to remember the first and last items in a list is called the
serial position effect
following a delay the first items of a list are
remembered better than last items, this is because your brain starts processing that information
encoding the meaning of words is referred to as
semantic endoding
encoding sound is
acoustic encoding
encoding of the images of words
Visual encoding
Craig and tulvings study comparing visual acoustic instruments at encoding showed that memory was best with
semantic encoding
our excellent recall of information that relates to ourselves is called the
self reference effect
memory that consists of mental pictures is based on the use of
imagry
because memory that consists of mental pictures tends to be highly memorable they aid
effortful processing
concrete hi am actually words tend to be remembered
better than abstract low imagery words
emery for concrete nouns is facilitated when we encode them
Semantically and visually
our tendency to recall the high points of pleasurable events such as family vacation illustrates the phenomenon of
rosy retrospection
, One mnemonic device involved for me associations between familiar series of locations and to be remembered words this technique is called
method of loci
memory aids are known as
mnemonic devices
using a jingle such as one is a bun is an example of the mnemonic device called
peg word system
memory may be aided by grouping information into meaningful units called
chunks
example of Chungking involves forming words from the first letters. of the to be remembered words, the resulting word is called
an acronym
material maybe process into hierarchies which are composed of
A few broad concepts divided into lesser concepts categories and facts
The initial recording of sensory information in the memory system
sensory memory
if your partner asks you what they just said to test your attention you can usually recover the last few words from your minds
echo chamber through Echoic memory
at any given moment we can consciously process only
A very limited amount of information
Wilder Penfield electrically stimulated cortical regions of his patient brains all they were awake sometimes they would hear things such as a mother calling her little boy, was this a relived memory
it was not a re lived memory
after an electrical blackout in the brain can you still remember memories
yes, want to revise your brain remembers everything before the blackout
prolonged strengthening of potential neural firing is called
Long term potentiation
LTP
Long Term, potentiation
CREB can
switch genes on or off (and genes code the production of protein molecules)
is CREB is decreased in the brain what may happen
A person may have poorer memory
glutimate is a brain neurotransmitter that
enhances synaptic communication (LTP)
CREB
A protein that can switch jeans off or on
The amygdala is
to emotional processing clusters in the limbic system
The amygdala is to motional processing clusters in the limbic system and they
boost activity in the brain memory farming areas
stress hormones released when excited or stressed make glucose energy
available to fuel brain activity signaling the brain that something important has happened
stress hormones released one excited or stressed can cause a person to better remember
certain events while making neutral events around the same time difficult to remember
weaker emotions also mean
weaker memories
prolonged stress such as in compat or sustained abuse can act like
acid corroding Merrill connections and shrinking brain area that is vital for laying down memories
a memory-to-be enters the cortex through
the senses
where a memory to be goes in the brain depends on
the type of information
a person with amnesia so they do not remember anything that happens (like 50 first dates) next has the ability to learn but
they have no awareness that they learned them
it is possible to destroy conscious recall withiut
destroying unconscious recall (present amnesia and face recognition is those who can not recognize faces)
people with present amnesia can learn
how to do something, procedural/implicit memory, but they may not know they know, explicit/declarative memory
some people (Alzheimer, amnesia) can retain their new learning but
do not explicitly recall it
implicit procedural memory can be done without
conscious recall
explicit declarative memory must be done with
conscious recall
explicit declarative memories are processed in the
hippocampus
implicit procedural memories are processed in the
cerebellum
implicit procedural memories processed in the cerebellum relate to
skills motor and cognition, and classical and operant conditioning effects
explicit declarative memories processed in the hippocampus relate to
facts general knowledge and personally experienced events
to remember an event requires
encoding and storage
to remember an event requires
encoding and storage
the brain is like a web with anchor points rhat
lead to memories and pathways of associations to those memories
because of state dependency, when drunk and learning, the material learned may
disappear and be forgotten when sober but return when drunk
if in a cheerful mood someone may views others as
also in a cheerful mood
in a bad mood someone’s look may be interpreted as
a glare, whereas in a good mood it is interest
when happy a person may recall
other happy events
when depressed a person may recall
other depressing events, further depressing mood in a vicious cycle
cues from an experience similar to another experience may cause a person to feel
déjà vu
what are the three sins of forgetting
absent mindedness, transience, blocking
what are the three sins of distortion
misattribution, suggestibility, bias
what is the sin of intrusion
persistence
what are the three categories of the seven sins of memory
forgetting, distortion, and intrusion
Inattention to details produces
encoding failure (absent mindedness)
our mind is elsewhere as we lay the keys down, causing an encoding failure, this is
absentmindedness
storage decay overtime is
transience
after we part ways with former classmates, unused information
fades due to transience
inaccessibility of stored information is
blocking
seeing an old classmate, we may feel the name on the tip of our tongue, but experience retrieval failure, what is this due to
blocking
confusing the source of information is
misattribution
putting words into someone’s mouth or remembering a movie scene as an actual happening is
masattribution
the lingering effects of misinformation
suggestability
a leading question, “did mr jones touch your private parts” later becomes a child’s false memory this is
suggestability
belief colored recollections
bias
a friends current feeling toward her fiancé may color her recalled initial feelings, this is
bias
unwanted memories
persistance
being haunted by images of sexual assault is
persistence
we can’t remember what we fail to encode bc
it never enters long term memory
people unknowingly edit their
history’s to prove improvement ect.
we encode our past from
stored information and what we now assume
the frailest part of memory is
source
many times we retain a memory but not the
source of the memory
source misattribution is also cslled
source amnesia
why is the cognitive interview technique used
it doesn’t lead the whiteness’ in one direction, and their testimonies become more accurate
review repeatedly, rehearse more time, make meaningful, use mnemonic devices, activate retrieval cues, recall when fresh, (before misinformation), minimize interference, test knowledge, what are all these tips for
studying to improve memory
study repeatedly to
boost long term recall (over learn)
Spend more time rehearsing or actively thinking about the material, because this will
excessive the new weak memories and strengthen them (skimming doesn’t work for retention)
make material personally meaningful to
build a network of retrieval cues (extensive notes, ask yourself questions)
to remember a list of unfamiliar objects use
mnemonic devices (associate items with peg words, use acronyms, create images)
to build a network of retrieval cues
take extensive notes, ask yourself questions
associating items with peg words, using acronyms, creating images are all
mnemonic devices
refresh your memory by activating
retrieval cues
how do you activate retrieval cues
by recreating the mood and atmosphere of the learning, jog your memory to this place and feeling
recall events that are fresh because
then you don’t need to worry about possible misinformation
minimize inference by
studying before sleep, and don’t study similar subjects you could mix up at the same time
Test your knowledge or rehearse it to help
determine what you don’t know
what are the two types of sensory memory
iconic and echoic
register and some information of visual images via
iconic memory (in which pictures last no more then 2 tenth of a second)
register and store sounds via
echoic memory (where echoes of auditory emery may linger as long as 3-4 seconds)
without rehearsal information disappears within
seconds from short term memory and is forgottten
we can only focus on and process about
7 items of info action at one time (from memory or new)
our capacity for storing information permanently in long term memory is
unlimited
an experience strengthens the
pathways between neurons. synapses transmit signals more efficiently.
sending neurons in pathways between neurons release neurotransmitters more quickly, receiving neurons may develop additional receptors increasing their ability to detect the incoming neurotransmitters in the processes know as
long term potentiation LTP
the neural basis for learning and memory is
LTP (long term potentiation)
by enabling the production of extra glucose, which fuels brain activity, stress hormones can
alert the brain to important events
the amygdala, arises brain areas that
process emotion
the emotion processing structuring in the brains lambic system is called the
amygdala
we are not often aware of the memory’s of our own skills and operantly and classically conditioned responses, hat type of memory
implicit (procedural) memories
implicit (procedural) memories are processed in part by the
cerebellum, near the brain stem
we consciously recall out general knowledge, specific facts and personally experienced events, which are what type of memory
explicit (declarative) memories
explicit (declarative) memories are processed in
various subregions of the hippocampus (I neural center in the limbic system) and sent for storage in other areas in the brain
explicit and implicit memory systems are dependent or independent
independent
damage to the hippocampus may destroy the ability to
form new memories, but without destroying older memories or the ability to form new implicit memories
what type of question tests recall
fill in the blank
the ability to retrieve not in conscious awareness is
recall
the ability to identify items previously Learned
recognition
what type of question tests recognition.
multiple choice
the ability to master previously learned material more quickly then u origins not learned ir
relearning
buts of related information we encode while processing a target piece of information linked in some way to the target, becoming part of a web of associations
retrieval cues
when a association bit (retrieval cue) catches pout attention it is as if we are
pulling on a web of associations, retrieving target information into our conscious awe mess
the process of activating associations to retrieve information is called
priming
The context in which we originally experience an event or encoded a thought can food our memories with
retrieval cues leading us to the target memory
if we are in a different context then the original event that is very similar to the original we may have
déjà vu, as many of these cues return and trick us into unconsciously retrieving the target memory
specific states or emotions can prime us to recall events that are
associated with those states or emorions
while Ina. good mood we tend to retire ice memories
consistent with the happy state
when depressed we more easily recall
negative memories
moods also prime us to interpret others behavior in ways that are
consistent with our emotions
without the ability to forget we would be
overwhelmed by out of dat and irrelevant information
our memory can fail us through
forgetting (absent mindedness, transience, blocking) distortion (misattribution, suggestibility, bias) intrusion (persistence of unwanted memories)
what’s we encode, weather automatically or through effortful processing is
a very limited portion of the sensory stimulus around us
as we a gem encoding becomes
slower and less efficient
without encoding informations
do not enter our long term memory store and can not be retrieved
ebbinghaus determined that the course of forgetting is
initially rapid and then levels off with time, (forgetting curve)
forgetting curve
the course of forgetting is Paris but then levels off
in proactive interference something we learned in the past
interferes with air ability to recall something we have recently learned
in retroactive interference something we have recently learned
interferes with something we learned in the past
when this semesters Spanish vocab interferes with last semesters French vocab, which type of interference has taken place
retrospective
when a friend’s old oh one number interferes with the friends new phone numbers which type of interference has taken place
proactive
Freud believed with banish thoughts related to
anxiety this is called repression
in frauds repression view, the forgotten memories are
available for retrieval under the right conditions
many psychologists believe that repression frequent or rarely occurs
rarely
memories are not stored or retreaded as exact copies of our experiences instead we construct our memories using both
stored and new information
if people are exposed to misinformation after an event and they repeatedly imagine and rehearse an even that never occured they may
encore rate it into their memory as if it actually happened
stress,LTP, brain circuits, automatic processing, electric current or head injury, storage decay are all
biological influences memory
rehearsal, context events, priming, mood, stress, encoding and organizing strategies, retrieval interference, memory construction are all
cognitive/psychological influences on memory
misinformation effect, flashbulb memory for important events, level of implied importance, source amnesia u are all
social cultural effects on memory
when we process memories we encode and store them in
different parts of the brain
misinformation effects and source amnesia are the two
main components of false memories
source amnesia happens when
during retrieval we successfully retrieve something we heard, read, and imagined but contribute it to the wrong source
false and real memories are equally
durable, neither the sincerity or longevity of a memory signifies that it is real
true memories contain more details then imagined ones, which tend to be
the gist of an event (the meaning and feelings associated with it)
very young children’s reports of abuse are reliable? what is a supporting argument
can accurately recall events and the people I voiced if a neural person talks to them with words they can understand and asks non leading questions and used the cognitive interview technique what th child said is probably reliable
very young children’s reports of abuse are reliable? what is a rejecting argument
more suspect able then older children or adults, and can be induced through suggestive questions to report false events
psychologists motivated to protect abused children and wrongly accused adults tend to agree that (list7)
innocent people are falsely accused, guilty people accuse bad memory

abuse happens and leaves scars

forgetting events happens

recoding events is common, do we repress memories?

memories retained under hypnosis and drugs are unreliable

infantile amnesia means infantile memories are highly unlikely

real and false memories Can cause suffering

memory includes long term memory, sensory memory, and working/short term memory, what is the correct order of these
sensory, working/short term, long term
what would be the most effective strategy to learn and retain a list of names of key historical figures for a week? year?
week: make them personally memorable
year: over learn the list and space out rehearsal over the course of several weeks
ur friends says her father experienced Brian damage in an accident, she wonders if psychology can explain why he can play checkers well but can’t hold a sensible conversation, what can u tell her?
explicit(declarative) memories differ form our implicit memories of skills and procedures such as checkers. our implicit memories are processed by more ancient brain areas which apparently escaped damage during the accident
what is priming
activation of associations, seeing a gun may make a person see an ambiguous face a dangerous or a boss as bad, although the perks not might not remember the gun, they way they interpret or recall and event might be primed
can u offer an example of proactive interference
learning the names of people in ur first class may cause u to have trouble learning names in ur future classes
what, given the commonality of source amnesia, might life be like if we remembered all our waking experiences and all our dreams
real would be confused with dreams. when meeting someone we might be unsure if we’re reacting to something they did or something we dreamed they did,
what are the recommended memory strategies
rehearsing, spend more time thinking about it, study repeatedly, make personal, mnemonic decided, retrieval cues, recall when fresh before misinformation, minimize interference, test knowledge to rehearse and learn what u do snd do not knows
stimuli from the environment is first recorded in
sensory memory
George sperling found that when people were briefly shown three rows of letters they recalled
about half of them
when sperling sounded a tone immediately after a row of letters were flashed to indicate which letters where to be recalled the subject were much
more accurate then when no tone was sounded
the fact people remembered when a tone was sounded to indicate what row of letter was to be remembered indicates that people
have a brief photographic or iconic memory, lasting about a few ten the of a second
sensory memory for sounds is called
echoic memory
echoic memory fades
Less rapidly then photographic memory, lasting for as long as 3-4 seconds
when rehearsal was prevented by asking subjects to count backward, memory for letters
was gone after 12 seconds
without active processing short term memories have
limited life
our short term memory capacity is about
7 chunks of information
who discovered that our short term memory capacity is about 7 chunks of information
George miller
short term memory for random digits is slightly better then
for random letters
memory for information we hear is somewhat
better then for information we see
children and adults have short term recall for roughly we many words as theu can speak in
2 seconds
in contrast to short term memory the capacity of permanent memory is
limitless
penfields electrically stimulated patients do not provide reliable evidence that out so tried memories are
precious and durable (do not provides)
psychologists cashly attempted to locate memory but cutting out pieces of rats cortexes after they learning a maze, he found that no matter where he cut the rats
remembered the maze
it is likely that forgetting occurs because
new experiences interfere with our retrieval of old information and the physical memory trace decays with the passage of time
researchers believe that me,let involves a strengthening of
certain neural connections which occurs at the synapse between neurons
Kendal and schwartzs have found that when learning it occurs the sea snail aplysia’s brain releases more or a
neurotransmitter called serotonin making synapses more efficient
after learning has occurred a sending neuron needs
less prompting to fire and the number of receptor cited it stimulate increases
after learning has occurred a sending neuron needs less prompting to fire and the number of receptor cited it stimulate increases, this phenomenon is called
long term potentiation, may be the neural basis for learning and memory
long term potentiation may be the neural basis for
learning and memory
blocking long term potentiation with specific drugs, or with genetic engineering causing the absence of enzymes, mag
interfering with leaning
rats given drugs to increase LTP (long term potentiation) will learn a maze
faster
drugs that boost production of the protein CREB or the neurotransmitter glutamate, may
enhance memory
after LTP has occurred, an electric current passed through the brain will not
disrupt old memories and will wipe out recent experiences
two emotion processing clusters int he amygdala increase
activity in the Brian’s memory forming areas
drugs that block the effects of stress hormones disrupt
memories of emotional events
prolonged stress may cause the hippocampus that is vital for laying down memories e to
shrink
the hypo campus is vital
for laying down memories
the loss of memory is called
amnesia
studies of people who have lost their memory suggest that Is not a
single unified system of memory
amnesia victims typically do not lose their
capacity for learning (implicit memory)
amnesia victims are typically not able to
declare their memory (explicit memory)
amnesia patients typically have suffered damage to the
hippocampus if their limbic system
the hypocampus is important in the processing and storage of
explicit memorys
damage to the left side of the hippocampus impairs memory for
verbal memory
damage to the right of the hippocampus
impairs memory of designs and locations
damage to the rear part of the hippocampus processes
spatial memory
the hippocampus seems to function as a zone where the brain
temporarily stores the elements of memory (but memories are stored elsewhere
the hippocampus is active during slow wave sleep,because
memories are processes for later retrieval
recalling past experiences activates various parts of the
frontal and temporal lobe
the cerebellum is important in the processing of
implicit memories
the dual explicit-implicit system helps explain
infantile amnesia
we do not have explicit memories of our first 3 years because
the hippocampus is one of the last brain structures to mature
stimuli form the environment is first recorded in
sensory memory
George sperling found that when people were briefly shown three rows of letters they recalled
about half of them
when sperling sounded a tone immediately after a row of letters were flashed to indicate which letters where to be recalled the subject were much
more accurate then when no tone was sounded
the fact people remembered when a tone was sounded to indicate what row of letter was to be remembered indicates that people
have a brief photographic or iconic memory, lasting about a few ten the of a second
sensory memory for sounds is called
echoic memory
echoic memory fades
Less rapidly then photographic memory, lasting for as long as 3-4 seconds
when rehearsal was prevented by asking subjects to count backward, memory for letters
was gone after 12 seconds
without active processing short term memories have
limited life
our short term memory capacity is about
7 chunks of information
who discovered that our short term memory capacity is about 7 chunks of information
George miller
short term memory for random digits is slightly better then
for random letters
memory for information we hear is somewhat
better then for information we see
children and adults have short term recall for roughly we many words as theu can speak in
2 seconds
in contrast to short term memory the capacity of permanent memory is
limitless
penfields electrically stimulated patients do not provide reliable evidence that out so tried memories are
precious and durable (do not provides)
psychologists cashly attempted to locate memory but cutting out pieces of rats cortexes after they learning a maze, he found that no matter where he cut the rats
remembered the maze
it is likely that forgetting occurs because
new experiences interfere with our retrieval of old information and the physical memory trace decays with the passage of time
the ability to retrieve information not in conscious aweness is called
recall
bah rick found that 25 yr after graduation people were not able to
recall the names of classmates
bah rick found that 25 yr after graduation people were able to
recognize 90% of their names in yearbook pictures
if you have learned Somthing Nd then forgotten it, you will probably be able to
learn it more quickly then u originally did
the process by which associations can lead too retrieval is called
priming
the best retrieval cues come from the associations formed at the time we
encode a memory
studies have shown that retention is best when
learning and testing are done in the same contexts
the type of memory in which emotions serve as retrieval cues is referred to as
state dependent memory
our tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with out current emotional state is cslled
mood congruent memory
people who are currently depressed may recall their parents as
rejecting/guilt promoting/punitive
people who have recovered from depression typically recall their pRents as about the same as do people
who never experienced depression
moods also influence how we interpret
other people’s emotions
without the ability to forget we would constantly
be overwhelmed by informstion
memory researcher Daniel Schafer has identified the Sven sins of memory , divid into three categories in which our memory can fail, these are
the three sins of forgetting, the three sins or distraction, and the sin of intrusion
the first type of forgetting is caused by
encoding failure
encoding failure occurs because some of the information the we sense never
becomes long term memory
one reason for age related memory decline is that the Brian areas responsible for enforcing new information are
less responsive in older adults
studies by ebbinghaus and bah rick indicate that most forgetting occurss
soon after the material is learned
of forgetting material soon after leaning it is know as
forgetting curve
the forgetting curve may be caused by
the gradual fading of physical memory trace
when information that is stored in memory temporarily cannot be found what type of failure has occured
failure
research suggests that memories are also lost as a result of
interference
if we simultaneously learn similar new material it is likely
interference will occur
the disruptive effects of previous learning on current material is
proactive interference
the disruptive effective of learning new material on efforts to recall material previously learned is called
retroactive interference
Jenkins and dallanbach found that if subjects went to sleep after leaning their memory for a nonsense list was
better then if they stayed awake
In some cases old information facilitates our learning of new information, this is called
positive transfer
Freud proposed that motivated forgetting or repression may protect a person form
painful memories
increasing numbers of memory researchers think that motivated forgetting is
less common then Freud believed
emotions and their associated stress hormones generally
strengthen memories
research has shown that recall of an event is influenced by
past experiences and present assumptions
the workings of past experiences and present assumptions illustrate the process of
memory reconstruction
when whitness to an event receive misleading information about it they may experience a
misinformation effect and misremember the event
a number of experiments have demonstrated that false memories can be created when
people are induced to imagine non existent events,
people who believe false memories created by imagination have experienced
imagination inflation
people who believe they have recovered memories of an alien abductiin and chill sex abuse tend to have
powerful imaginations (false memories)
at the heart of many false memories is
source amnesia
source amnesia occured when we
attribute an event of the wrong source
the persistence of a memory, does not reveal
weather or not it derives from an actual experience
real memories are more
detailed
false gist memories are more
durable
eyewitnesses confidence in their memories is not related to
their accuracy
memory construction explains why merits refreshed under hypnosis are
often inaccurate
research studies of children’s eyewitnesses recall recall that
preschooler are more suggestible then older children or adults
weather a child produced an accurate eyewitness memory depend heavily on
how he or she is questioned
children are most accurate when it is a first interview with a
neutral persons who asks nonleading questions
researchers increasingly agree that memories obtained under the influence of hypnosis or drugs are
not reliable
memories of events that happened before. age 3 are
unreliable
memories are unreliable before.3 and this event I is called
infantile amnesia
memory construction makes it clear that memory is best understood knot only as a
cognitive and biological event but also a social cultural phenominon
the SQ3R study technique identifys 5 stratified for boosting memory
survey, question, read, revise, review
fill in the blank test questions are to multiple choice questions as
recall is to recognition
the delay between the information to memorize and then recall is longer and therefore the Information learned is
very little, and usually the first few items are remembered (if delay is shorter then first and last items are remembered)
Darren was asked to memories a list of letters that included: v,q,y,j.
he recalled these letter as, e, u, i, k, suggesting the original letter had been encoded in what way
acoustically, bc each mistake is based on sound confusion
after finding her old combination lock Jo can’t remember it’s combination bc she keeps confusing it with the combination of her new look, she is experiencing
retroactive
if u wanted to minimize interference induced forgetting in orde to improve ur recall what order should u study in
study, sleep, test
being in a bad mood after a hard day of work, susan could pthink of nothing positive in her life, this is explained by
mood congruent memory
in an effort to remeebr the name of the classmate who sat behind her in 5th grader martins mentally recited the names of other classmates who sat near her, Martina’s effort to refresh her memory by activating related associations is an example of
priming
walking through the the halls of his hihgschool 10 yrs after graduation Tom experienced a flood of old memories. toms expirence showed the role of
context effect
state dependent memory is related to
mood
the firs thing Karen did when she discovered that she misplaced her keys was to recreate her days events, she had little difficulty doing so, demonstrating
automatic processing
rememeberjng what u did in 9-11 is an example of what kind of memory
flashbulb memory
when Carlos was promoted he moved into his new office with a new phone extension. every time he is asked for his ohine number he thinks Of his old extension, illustrating the effects of
proactive interference
elderly mrs Flanagan a retired electrician can easily remember how to wire a light switch by no the name of the president. evidently he what? memory is better then his what? memory
implicit is better then explicit
although u can’t recall the answer to a question on ur psych midterm u have a clear mental image of e textbook page, evidently ur visual encoding of the answer was what?
automatic
at ur high school reunion u cannot remember ur last name of ur homeroom teacher. this failure to remembered is most likely the result of
retrieve failure
Brenda has trouble rememeberjng her new five digit ZIP plus 4 digit address code, what is the expat inaction of her difficultly
9 digits are at or above a persons limit of most people short term memory
hat number is at or above a persons digit memory
9
Lewis con not rmemebr the steaks of the torture he experienc as a prisoner of warm according to Friedman Lewis failure to remember dthese painful memories is an example of
repression
although elderly Hans with Alzheimer’s disease has many gaps in memory she invents sensible accounts of her activities so her family will not worry, demonstrating
the constructive nature of memory
to help him remember the order of the ingredients in difficult receives, master chef associates them with the route he walks to work was day, he is using th mnemonic technique of
method of loci
peg word system involved developing
associations between rhyming works in a jingle
during basketball practice Jan’s head as painfully elbowed, if the trauma to her Brian disrupts her memory we would expect that jab wiudk most likely forget
the name of the play in which she was elbowed
blows to the head usually disrupt
the most recent memories (not old or following memories)
after damage to the hippocampus someone would most likely
lose the ability to store new facts
when jake was 8, he was questioned by police about a counselor suspected or molesting children. he was not molested by now at 19 urs old he remembered the counselor touching him inappropriately , what sin of memory caused his false memory
suggestability
when jake was 8, he was questioned by police about a counselor suspected or molesting children. he was molested but did not remember, now at 19 urs old he remembered the counselor touching him inappropriately , what sin of memory caused his memory to come back and be lost
transience

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