AP Psych chapter 11- Personality

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personality
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an individual’s unique and relatively consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving
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personality theory
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a theory that attempts to describe and explain similarities and differences in people’s patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving
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psychoanalysis
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freud’s theory of personality, which emphasizes unconscious determinants of behavior, sexual and aggressive instinctual drives, and the enduring effects of early childhood experiences on later personality development
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free association
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a psychoanalytic technique in which the patient spontaneously reports all thoughts, feelings, and mental images as they come to mind
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unconscious
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a term used to dexcibe thoughts, feelings, wishes, and drives that are operating below the level of conscious awareness
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id
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the completely unconscious, irrational component of personality that seeks immediate satisfaction of instinctual urges and drives; ruled by the pleasure principle
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Eros
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the self=preservation or life instinct, reflected in the expression of basic biological urges that perpetuate the existence of the individual and the speciesq
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libido
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the psych and emotional energy associated with expressions of sexuality; the sex drive
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Thanatos
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the death instinct, reflected in aggressive, destrcutive, and self-destructive actions
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pleasure principle
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the motive to obtain pleasure and avoid tension or discomfort; the most fundamental human motive and the guiding principle of the id
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ego
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the partly conscious rational component of personality that regualtes thoughts and behavior and is most in tosuch with the demands of the external world
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reality principle
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the capacity to accomodate external demands by postponing gratification until the appropriate time or circumstances exist
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superego
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the partly conscious, self-evaluative, moralistic component of personalith that is formed through the internalization of parental and societal rules
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ego defense mechanisms
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largely unconscious distrotions of thoughts or perceptions that act to reduce anxiety
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repression
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the unconscious exclusion of anxiety-provoking thoughts, feelings, and memories from conscious awareness; the msot fundamental EDM
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suppression
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motivated forgetting
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displacement
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unconsioucly shifting the target of an emotional urge to a substitute target that is less threatening or dangerous
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sublimation
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redirecting sexual urges toward productive, socially acceptable, nonsexual activities; a form of displacement
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rationalization
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justifying actions or feelings with socially acceptable explanations
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projection
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placing your own emotions onto someone else (that teacher hates me)
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reaction formation
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thinking or behaving in a way that is the extreme opposite of unacceptable urges or impulses
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denial
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failing to acknowledge the existence of anxiety-provoking info
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undoing
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a form of unconscious repentance that involves neutralizing or atoning for an unacceptable action or thought with a second action or thought
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regression
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retreating to a behavior pattern characteristic of an earlier stage of development
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fixation
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being stuck in a freud stage
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emotional insulation
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being emotionally detached; disconnected and abandoned, adopted kid, doesn’t want to get attached
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resistance
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something threatening; so don’t follow
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avoidance
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don’t know why, but something painful, so avoids. Uncle Creepy.
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fantasy
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comparing life to sitcoms; star trek conventions
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overcompensation
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someone bad at school becomes a great athlete
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compartmentalization
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CIA operative with family completely different
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intellectualization
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thinking about a stressful event in a cold, and serious way
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psychosexual stages
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age related developmental periods in which the child’s sexual urges are focused on different areas of the body and are expressed through the activities associated with those areas
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Oedipus complex
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a child’s unconscious sexual desire for the opposite-sex parent, usually accompanied by hostile feelings toward the same-sex parent
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identification
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an EDM that involves reducting anxiety by imitating the behavior and characteristics of another person
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collective unconscious
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the hypothesized part of the unconscious mind that is inherited from previous generations and that contains unicersally shared ancestral experiences and ideas
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archetypes
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the inherited mental images of unicersal human instincts, themes, and preoccupations that are the main components of the collective unconscious
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conditional positive regard
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the sense that you will be valued and loved only if you behave in a way that is acceptable to others
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unconditional positive regard
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the sense that you will be valued and loved even if you don’t conform to the standards and expectations of others; unconditional love or acceptance
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social cognitive theory
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Bandura’s theory of personality, which emphasixes the importance of observational leraning, conscious cognitive processes, social experiences, self-efficacy beliefs, and reciprocal determinism
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reciprocal determinism
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a model proposed by Bandura that explains human functioning and personality as cuased by the interaction of behavioral, cognitive, and envrironmental factors
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self-efficacy
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the beliefs that people have about their ability to meet the demands of a specific situation; feelings of self-confidence or self-doubt
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trait
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a relatively stable, enduring predisposition to consistently behave in a certain way
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trait theory
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a theory of personality that focuses on identifying, describing, and measuring individual differences in behavioral predispostions
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surface traits
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personality characteristics or attributes that can easily be inferred from observable behavior
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source traits
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the most fundamental dimensions of personality; the broad, basic traits that are hypothesized to be universal and relatively few in number
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five-factor model of personality
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a trait theory of personality that identifies five basic source traits as the fundmental building blocks of personality
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behavioral genetics
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an interdisciplinary field that studies the effects of genes and heredity on behavior
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psychological test
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a test that assesses a person’s abilities, aptitudes, interests, or personality, on the basis of a systematically obtained sample of behavior
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projective test
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a type of personality test that involves a person’s interpreting an ambiguous image; used to assesss unconscious motives, confliscts, psych defenses, and personaltiy traits
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Rorschach Inkblot Test
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a projective test using inkblots, developed by Rorschach
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graphology
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a pseudoscience that claims to assess personality, social, and occupational attributes based on a person’s distinctive handwriting doodles, and drawing styple
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Thematic Apperception Test TAT
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a projective personality test that involves creating stories about each of a series of ambiguous scenes
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self-report inventory
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a type of psych test in which a person’s responses to standardized questions are compared to established norms
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Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
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a self-report inventory that assesses peronality characteristics and psych disorders; used to assess both normal and disturbed populations
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California Personality Inventory (CPI)
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a self-report inventory that assesses personality characteristics in normal populations
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Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF)
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a self-report inventory deveoloped by Raymond Cattell that generates a personality profile with ratings on 16 trait dimensions
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possible selves
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the aspect of the self-concept that inclueds images of the selves that you hope, fear, or expect to become in the future
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Alfred Adler
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broke with Freud and developed his own psych theory of personality, which emphasized social factors and the motivation toward self-improvement and self realization; key ideas: inferiority/superiority complex
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Albert Bandura
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key ideas: self-efficacy beliefs and reciprocal determinism
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Raymond Cattell
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developed a trait theory that identifies 16 essential source traits or personality facots; also developed the widely used self-report personality test (16PF)
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Hans Eysenck
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developed a trait theory of personality that identifies the three basic dimensions of personality as neuroticism, extraversion, and psychoticism
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Sigmund Freud
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founded psychoanalysis, which is a comprehensive theory of personality and a form of psychotherapy; emphasized the role of unconscious determinants of behavior and early childhood experiences in the development of personality and psychological problems; key ideas: id, ego superego; psychosexual stages of development; and the ego defense mechanisms
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Karen Horney
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emphasized the role of social relationships and culture in personality; sharply diasgreed with Freud’s characterization of femal psych development, especially with penis ency, key ideas: basic anxiety and womb envy
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Carl G. Jung
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broke with Freud to develop his own psychoanalytic theory of personality, which stressed striving toward psych harmony; key ideas: collective unconscious and archetypes
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Abraham Maslow
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was a founder of humanistic psych and emphasized the study of healthy personality development; develped a hierachical theory of motivation based on the idea that people will strive for self0actualization, the highest motive, only after more basic needs have been met; key ideas: hierarchy of needs and self-actualization
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Carl Rogers
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was a founder of humanistic psych; develped theory of personality and form of psychtherapy that emphasized the inherent worht of people, the innate tendency to strive toward one’s potential, and the importance of the self-concept in personality development; key ideas: the actualizing tendency and unconditional positive regard

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