AP Psych – Chapter 10: Personality

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Personality
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The psychological qualities that bring continuity to an individual’s behavior in different situations and at different times.
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Psychoanalytic theory
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Freud’s theory of personality.
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Unconscious
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In Freudian theory, this is the psychic domain of which the individual is not aware but that is the storehouse of repressed impulses, drives, and conflicts unavailable in consciousness.
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Libido
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The Freudian concept of psychic energy that drives individuals to experience sensual pleasure.
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Id
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The primitive, unconscious portion of the personality that houses the most basic drives and stores repressed memories.
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Superego
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The mind’s storehouse of values, including moral attitudes learned from parents and from society; roughly the same as the common notion of the conscience.
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Ego
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The conscious, rational part of the personality, charged with keeping peace between the superego and the id.
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Psychosexual stages
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Successive, instinctive patterns of associating pleasure with stimulation of specific body areas at different times of life.
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Oedipus complex
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According to Freud, a largely unconscious process whereby boys displace an erotic attraction toward their mother to females of their own age and, at the same time, identify with their fathers.
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Identification
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The mental process by which an individual tries to become like another person, especially the same-sex parent.
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Penis envy
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According to Freud, the female desire to have a penis – a condition that usually results in their attraction to males.
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Fixation
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Occurs when psychosexual development is arrested at an immature stage.
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Ego defense mechanism
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Largely unconscious mental strategies employed to reduce the experience of conflict or anxiety.
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Repression
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An unconscious process that excludes unacceptable thoughts and feelings from awareness and memory.
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Projective tests
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Personality assessment instruments, such as the Rorschach and TAT, which are based on Freud’s ego defense mechanism of projection.
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Rorschach inkblot technique
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A projective test requiring subjects to describe what they see in a series of ten inkblots.
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Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
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A projective test requiring subjects to make up stories that explain ambiguous pictures.
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Psychic determinism
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Freud’s assumption that all our mental and behavioral responses are caused by unconscious traumas, desires, or conflicts.
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Neo-Freudians
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Literally \”new Freudians;\” refers to theorists who broke with Freud but whose theories retain a psychodynamic aspect, especially a focus on motivation as the source of energy for the personality.
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Personal unconscious
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Jung’s term for the portion of the unconscious corresponding roughly to the Freudian id.
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Collective unconscious
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Jung’s addition to the unconscious, involving a reservoir for instinctive \”memories,\” including the archetypes, which exist in all people.
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Archetypes
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The ancient memory images in the collective unconscious; appear and reappear in art, literature, and folktales around the world.
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Basic anxiety
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An emotion, proposed by Karen Horney, that gives a sense of uncertainty and loneliness in a hostile world and can lead to maladjustment.
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Neurotic needs
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Signs of neurosis in Horney’s theory, these 10 needs are normal desires carried to a neurotic extreme.
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Inferiority complex
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A feeling of inferiority that is largely unconscious, with its roots in childhood.
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Compensation
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Making up for one’s real or imagined deficiencies.
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Traits
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Stable personality characteristics that are presumed to exist within the individual and guide his or her thoughts and actions under various conditions.
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Central traits
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According to trait theory, traits that form the basis of personality.
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Secondary traits
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In trait theory, preferences or attitudes.
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Cardinal traits
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Personality components that define people’s lives; very few individuals have cardinal traits.
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Self-actualizing personalities
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Healthy individuals who have met their basic needs and are free to be creative and fulfill their potentials.
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Fully functioning person
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Carl Rogers’s term for a healthy, self-actualizing individual, who has a self-concept that is both positive and congruent with reality.
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Phenomenal field
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Our psychological reality, composed of one’s perceptions and feelings.
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Positive psychology
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A recent movement within psychology, focusing on the desirable aspects of human functioning, as opposed to an emphasis on psychopathology.
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Observational learning
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The process of learning new responses by watching others’ behavior.
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Reciprocal determinism
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The process in which cognitions, behavior, and the environment mutually influence each other.
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Humors
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Four body fluids – blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile – that, according to an ancient theory, control personality by their relative abundance.
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Temperament
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The basic and pervasive personality dispositions that are apparent in early childhood and that establish the tempo and mood of the individual’s behaviors.
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Five-factor theory
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A trait perspective suggesting that personality is composed of five fundamental personality dimensions: openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism.
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MMPI-2
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A widely used personality assessment instrument that gives scores on ten important clinical traits.
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Person-situation controversy
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A theoretical dispute concerning the relative contribution of personality factors and situational factors in controlling behavior.
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Type
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Refers to especially important dimensions or clusters of traits that are not only central to a person’s personality but are found with essentially the same pattern in many people.
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Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MMTI)
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A widely used personality test based on Jungian types.
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Implicit personality theory
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Assumptions about personality that are held by people (especially nonpsychologists) to simplify the task of understanding them.

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