AP Psych. Ch.14 (Social Psychology) Vocab – Flashcards

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Social Psychology
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The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
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Attribution Theory
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The theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition.
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Fundamental Attribution Error
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The tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.
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Attitude
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Feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.
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Peripheral Route Persuasion
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Occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness.
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Central Route Persuasion
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Occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts.
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Foot-In-The-Door Phenomenon
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The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
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Role
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A set of explanations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.
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Cognitive Dissonance Theory
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The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
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Conformity
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Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
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Normative Social Influence
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Influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.
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Informational Social Influence
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Influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality.
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Social Facilitation
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Stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others.
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Social Loafing
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Tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.
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Deindividuation
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The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
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Group Polarization
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The enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group.
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Group Think
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The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.
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Prejudice
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An unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.
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Stereotype
answer
A generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.
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Discrimination
answer
Unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members.
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Just-Word Phenomenon
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The tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
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Ingroup
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"Us" - people with whom one shares a common identity.
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Outgroup
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"Them" - those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup.
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Ingroup Bias
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The tendency to favor one's own group.
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Scapegoat Theory
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The theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.
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Other-Race Effect
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The tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races. Also called the cross-race effect and the own-race bias.
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Aggression
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Any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.
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Frustration-Aggression Principle
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The principle that frustration- the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal- creates anger which can generate aggression.
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Social Script
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Culturally modeled guide for how to act in various situations.
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Mere Exposure Effect
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The phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them.
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Passionate Love
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An aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.
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Companionate Love
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The deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.
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Equity
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A condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
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Self-Disclosure
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Revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.
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Altruism
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Unselfish regard for the welfare of others.
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Bystander Effect
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The tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
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Social Exchange Theory
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The theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.
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Reciprocity Norm
answer
An expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them.
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Social-Responsibility Norm
answer
An expectation that people will help those dependent upon them.
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Conflict
answer
A perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.
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Social Trap
answer
A situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
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Mirror-Image Perceptions
answer
Mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive.
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Superordinate Goals
answer
Shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.
question
GRIT
answer
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction - a strategy designed to decrease international tensions.
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question
Social Psychology
answer
The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
question
Attribution Theory
answer
The theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition.
question
Fundamental Attribution Error
answer
The tendency for observers, when analyzing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.
question
Attitude
answer
Feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.
question
Peripheral Route Persuasion
answer
Occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness.
question
Central Route Persuasion
answer
Occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts.
question
Foot-In-The-Door Phenomenon
answer
The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
question
Role
answer
A set of explanations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.
question
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
answer
The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
question
Conformity
answer
Adjusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
question
Normative Social Influence
answer
Influence resulting from a person's desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.
question
Informational Social Influence
answer
Influence resulting from one's willingness to accept others' opinions about reality.
question
Social Facilitation
answer
Stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others.
question
Social Loafing
answer
Tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.
question
Deindividuation
answer
The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
question
Group Polarization
answer
The enhancement of a group's prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group.
question
Group Think
answer
The mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.
question
Prejudice
answer
An unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action.
question
Stereotype
answer
A generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.
question
Discrimination
answer
Unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members.
question
Just-Word Phenomenon
answer
The tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
question
Ingroup
answer
"Us" - people with whom one shares a common identity.
question
Outgroup
answer
"Them" - those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup.
question
Ingroup Bias
answer
The tendency to favor one's own group.
question
Scapegoat Theory
answer
The theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.
question
Other-Race Effect
answer
The tendency to recall faces of one's own race more accurately than faces of other races. Also called the cross-race effect and the own-race bias.
question
Aggression
answer
Any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.
question
Frustration-Aggression Principle
answer
The principle that frustration- the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal- creates anger which can generate aggression.
question
Social Script
answer
Culturally modeled guide for how to act in various situations.
question
Mere Exposure Effect
answer
The phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them.
question
Passionate Love
answer
An aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.
question
Companionate Love
answer
The deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.
question
Equity
answer
A condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
question
Self-Disclosure
answer
Revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.
question
Altruism
answer
Unselfish regard for the welfare of others.
question
Bystander Effect
answer
The tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
question
Social Exchange Theory
answer
The theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.
question
Reciprocity Norm
answer
An expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them.
question
Social-Responsibility Norm
answer
An expectation that people will help those dependent upon them.
question
Conflict
answer
A perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.
question
Social Trap
answer
A situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
question
Mirror-Image Perceptions
answer
Mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive.
question
Superordinate Goals
answer
Shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.
question
GRIT
answer
Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction - a strategy designed to decrease international tensions.