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AP Psych Ch. 12: Abnormal Psychology

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abnormal psychology
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the study of people who suffer from psychological disorders
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abnormality
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maladaptive to individual, disturbing to others, unusual, irrational; does not make sense to the average person
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insane
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term used by people to describe psychological disorders–>NOT a medical term, but a legal term…those legally insane cannot be held fully responsible for crimes committed
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Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
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A reference book used by psychologists and psychiatrists to diagnose psychological disorders.
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multiaxial approach
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each person is rated on five distinct dimensions or axes, with each axis referring to a different domain of a person’s functioning (clinical disorders, personality and developmental disorders, medical conditions, psychosocial conditions, and global assessment of functioning[GAF])
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clinical disorders
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first axis: major diagnosis, anxiety, dissociative, somatoform, mood, and schizophrenic
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personality and developmental disorders
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second axis
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medical conditions
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third axis: physical ailments that could impact a person’s psychological well-being
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psychosocial conditions
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environmental factors that may affect a person’s mental health
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Global assessment of functioning (GAF)
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scale used by mental health practitioners to quantify a client’s psychological function. 1-100. less than 50=hospital admission
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eclectic psychologist
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accepts and uses ideas from a number of different perspectives
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anxiety disorders
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A class of disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety.
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specific phobia
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[anxiety disorder] intense unwarranted fear of a situation or an object (ex. claustrophobia, arachnophobia, agoraphobia, social phobia)
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generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
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[anxiety disorder] constant, low-level anxiety; constantly feeling nervous and out of sorts
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panic disorder
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[anxiety disorder] having acute episodes of intense anxiety without any apparent provocation; panic attacks are frequent and increase anxiety with paranoia
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obsessive-compulsive disorder
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[anxiety disorder] persistent, unwanted obsessions cause one to feel the compulsion to engage in a particular action
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post-traumatic stress disorder
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[anxiety disorder] having flashbacks or nightmares following one’s involvement in or observation of an extremely troubling event
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somatoform disorders
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a class of disorders where a person shows a psychological problem through a physiological symptom
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hypochondriasis
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[somatoform disorder] frequent physical complaints for which medical doctors are unable to locate a cause
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conversion disorder
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[somatoform disorder] reporting existence of severe physical problem, but no biological reason can be identified
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dissociative disorders
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a class of disorders where a person shows a disruption in conscious processes
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psychogenic amnesia
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[dissociative disorder] person cannot remember things and no physiological base for disruption can be identified
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organic amnesia
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[dissociative disorder] loss of memory resulting from physical trauma or damage to the brain
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fugue
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[dissociative disorder] experiencing psychogenic amnesia and finding self in an unfamiliar environment
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dissociative identity disorder (multiple personality)
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[dissociative disorder] a person has several personalities; commonly have history of sexual abuse or childhood trauma
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mood/affective disorders
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a class of disorders where one experiences extreme or inappropriate emotions
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major depressive disorder (unipolar depression)
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[mood/affective disorder] most common mood disorder; remaining unhappy for more than two weeks in absence of a clear reason; common symptoms include loss of appetite, fatigue, sleeping pattern changes, feelings of worthlessness
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seasonal depressive disorder (SAD)
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[mood/affective disorder] experiencing depression during certain times of the year, usually winter; treated with light therapy
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bipolar disorder (manic depression)
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[mood/affective disorder] involves depressed and manic episodes (feelings of high energy)
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dysthymic disorder
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[mood/affective disorder] less intense depressive disorder
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cognitive triad
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(Aaron Beck) there are 3 important areas of life that are most influenced by the depressive cognitive schema; this refers to information about the self, about the world, and about the future
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learned helplessness
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the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 625)
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schizophrenic disorders
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a class of disorders that is most severe and debilitating; disordered distorted thinking is often demonstrated through delusions/hallucinations
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delusions
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beliefs that have no basis in reality
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persecution delusion
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the belief that people are out to get you
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grandeur delusion
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the belief that you enjoy greater power/influence than you do
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hallucinations
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perceptions in the absence of any sensory stimulation
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disorganized schizophrenia
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[schizophrenic disorder] involves odd uses of language (neologisms, clang associations) and in some cases, inappropriate affect and flat affect
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neologisms
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made up words
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clang associations
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stringing together series of nonsense words that rhyme
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inappropriate affect
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inappropriate emotional response to a situation
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flat affect
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no emotional response to a situation
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paranoid schizophrenia
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[schizophrenic disorder] involves delusions of persecution
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catatonic schizophrenia
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[schizophrenic disorder] involves odd movements, being motionless in strange postures and suddenly moving jerkily; waxy flexibility
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waxy flexibility
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when motionless, allowing body to be moved and holding that new pose
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undifferentiated schizophrenia
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[schizophrenic disorder] exhibiting disordered thinking but no other schizophrenic symptoms
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positive symptoms
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excess in behavior, thought, or mood (neologisms, hallucinations)
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negative symptoms
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deficits (flat affect, catatonia)
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Dopamine hypothesis
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The idea that schizophrenia involves an excess of dopamine activity
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tardive dyskinesia
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muscle tremors and stiffness, effect of long-term use of antipsychotic drugs that target D2 dopamine receptors. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 712)
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double bind
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a situation in which an individual is given two different and inconsistent messages. (cognitive-behavioral theory)
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diathesis-stress model
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a model suggesting that a person may be predisposed for a mental disorder that remains unexpressed until triggered by stress
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personality disorders
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a class of disorders that involves well-established, maladaptive ways of behaving that negatively affect people’s ability to function
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antisocial personality disorder
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[personality disorder] having little regard for other people’s feelings; many criminals have this
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dependent personality disorder
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[personality disorder] relying too much on attention and help of others
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paranoid personality disorder
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[personality disorder] feeling persecuted, not as intense as paranoid schizophrenia; no delusions
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narcissistic personality disorder
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[personality disorder] seeing oneself as the center of the universe
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histrionic personality disorder
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[personality disorder] having overly dramatic behavior
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obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
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[personality disorder] being overly concerned with certain thoughts and behaviors–> not as extensive as OCD
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paraphilias
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disorders marked by the sexual attention to an object, person, or activity not usually seen as sexual
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pedophilia
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having an attraction to children
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zoophilia
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having an attraction to animals
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voyeur
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feeling sexually aroused while watching others engage in sexual behavior
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masochism
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feeling aroused by having pain inflicted upon oneself
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sadism
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feeling aroused by inflicting pain on someone else
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substance use disorder
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when the use of alcohol/drugs regularly and negatively affects one’s life
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substance dependence
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addiction
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autism
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slow in developing language skills
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Attention deficit/hyperactive disorder
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having difficulty developing skills