AP MUSIC THEORY STUDY GUIDE

Cadence
rhythmic flow of a sequence of sounds or words

Cadential Extension
prolonging or delaying cadence with additional material

Coda
the closing section of a musical composition

Codetta
A short coda

Contour
outline of the musical piece

Countermelody
Accompanying melody sounding against the principle melody

Elision (phrase elision)
when the last note of one phrase serves as the first note of the next phrase

Fragment (Fragmented motive)
a small but recognizable part of the motive

Bridge
connecting material with or without lyrics

Chorus
a group in unison

Song form (AABA)
The order in which the parts of a song are organized and arranged (AABA is the most common song form and is arranged verse, verse, chorus, verse)

Turnaround
passage at end of a section which leads to the next section, often repetition of previous section

Twelve-bar Blues
standard formula for the blues with a harmonic progression in which the first four measure phrase is on the tonic the second phrase begins on the subdominant and ends on the tonic and the third phrase on the dominant and returns to the tonic.

Augmentation
the statement of a theme in notes of greater duration (usually twice the length of the original)

Conjunct
Smooth, connected melody that moves principally by small intervals.

Diminution
lessening; reduction in size

Disjunct
disjointed or disconnected melody with many leaps

Extended Version
the version of a phrase that includes extra sequences or repetition

Fragmentation
division of a musical idea into segments

Internal Expansion
phrase extends beyond the expected phrase length

Inversion (Melodic Inversion)
any arrangement of chord other than root position

Literal Repetition
sequences are repeated, indicated by repeat sign, capo, or segno

Motivic Transformation
rhythmic theme is changed

Octave displacement
taking a melodic line and moving some of the notes into a different octave

Retrograde
go backwards in a piece of music

Rhythmic Transformation
multiplication, rotation, permutation (i.e. transposition, inversion, and retrograde), and combinations thereof involving rhythm

Sequence
The following of one thing after another; succession; orderly series

Sequential repetition
transposing a longer sequence to a different scale degree; may be diatonic or intervalically exact

Shortened Version
Abbreviated version of a piece

Transposition
playing in a different key from the key intended

truncation
utilizing a melody with part of the end omitted

Motive
a theme that is elaborated on in a piece of music

Period
an amount of time in a piece of music

Antecedent
an introduction coming before a phrase

Consequent
following as an effect or result of the antecedent

Contrasting period
period in which phrase beginnings are not similar

Double Period
four phrases in two pairs, cadence at end of second pair is stronger than cadence at the end of the first pair

Parallel Period
melodic material that begin the two halves of the periods are similar

Phrase Group
Transitional passages that connect more significant thematic areas. They seem to belong together without forming a period or double period.

Refrain
a regularly repeated line or group of lines

Binary
characterized by or consisting of two parts or components

Rounded Binary
Musical form similar to ternary but first section isn’t fully repeated (A | Ba)

Ternary
A B A, or statement-contrast-return

Solo, soli
melodic line
solo: one person
soli: the section

Stanza
a group of lines forming a unit

Strophic
describes a song where the stanzas are all sung to the same music

Theme
a unifying idea that is a recurrent element

Thematic Transformation
musical expansion of a theme by varying its melodic outline, harmony, or rhythm

Through-composed
a form containing new music throughout

Tutti
section of a musical composition played by all the performers

Variation
a change in the musical form whether it be rhyme, diction pattern etc.

Verse
a line of metrical text

Authentic Cadence
V-I

Imperfect authentic Cadence
tonic note NOT in soprano, can be V to I or vii to I, chords are inverted

Perfect authentic Cadence
a progression from V to I in major keys, chords in root position, tonic note in soprano line

Conclusive cadence
movement from V or V7 to I ends on tonic chord

Deceptive Cadence
V-VI

Half Cadence
cadence ending on V

Phrygian half Cadence
iv6 -> V

Inconclusive Cadence
A cadence that doesn’t end on I.

Plagal Cadence
IV-I

Tonic
1

Supertonic
2

Mediant
3

Subdominant:
4

Dominant:
5

Submediant:
6

Leading tone:
7

Functions
?

Tonic Functions
A chord that can substitute for the tonic chord

Dominant functions
?

Predominant functions
any chord that leads to a dominant chord such as the supertonic, subdominant, submediant, secondary dominant, minor six chord, and diminshed seventh chord.

Circle of 5ths
Chart that represents the relationships between all major and minor keys. beadgcf flats fcgdaeb sharps

Deceptive progression
The progression V -vi (or V-VI).

Harmonic rhythm
time or rhythmic value in which harmony progresses; the regularity and linear motion of chord progression

Modulation
rise and fall of the pitch

Common tone modulation
sustained/repeated pitch that acts as a bridge from old key to new key.

phrase modulation
modulations without common chords or tones

Pivot chord modulation
a type of modulation that moves from the original key to the destination key (usually a closely related key) by way of a chord both keys share

Neighboring chord
formed by 2-3 neighbor notes occurring at the same time in similar motion to make a new chord

Rate of harmonic change
rate at which the chords change or the harmony changes in a piece

Retrogression
Movement backward

Secondary Dominant
the V or Dominant of a key other than Tonic

Secondary leading tone Chord
a leading tone chord that functions as applied or secondary, dominant, usually fully diminished seventh chord

Tonicization
Treatment of a chord as the tonic for less than a phrase

Anticipation
Approach by Step or skip leave by same note direction up or down not accented

Apoggiatura:
approach by skip leave by step direction usually opposite accented

Embellishment
ornamentation added to music to make it more beautiful or effective

Escape tone (echapee)
approach by step leave by skip direction usually opposite not accented

Neighboring tone (auxilary, embellishing, and neighbor tones)
approach by step leave by step opposite direction

Double Neighbor
combination of successive upper and lower neighbors around the same pitch

Lower Neighbor
a neighboring tone that is a step lower than the surrounding chord tones

Upper Neighbor
A neighboring tone that is a step higher than the surrounding chord tones

Neighbor group (Cambiata, changing tones, changing notes):
skip, step, opposite, no

Ornament
embellishment

Passing tone (accented, unaccented)
step, step, same

Pedal Point
a note, usually in the bass, sustained or continually repeated for a period of time while the harmonies change around it

Preparation
a note that produces a dissonant chord is first heard in a consonant chord

Resolution
a dissonant chord is followed by a consonant chord

Retardation
same note, step, up, accented

Suspension

Rearticulated Suspension:

Suspension Chain:

Alto:

Bass:

Close position:

Doubling:

First Inversion:

Inversion, inversion of chords:

Open Position:

Root:

Root Position:

Second Inversion:

Soprano:

Tenor:

Third Inversion:

Common Tone:

Contrary Motion:

Cross relation (false relation):

Crossed Voices (voice crossing):

Direct fifths (hidden fifths):

Direct octaves (hidden octaves):

Oblique motion:

Overlapping Voices:

Parallel Motion:

Parallel intervals:

Objectionable: parallels:

Parallel fifths:

parallel octaves:

Similar motion:

Tendency tone:

Unresolved leading tone:

Unresolved seventh:

Voice exchange:

Arpeggio, arpeggiation:

Chromatic:

Common practice Style:

Consonance:

Diatonic:

Dissonance:

Figured Bass:

Flatted Fifth:

Lead Sheet:

Picardy Third:

Resolution:

Äntiphonal:

Articulation:

Arco:

Legatio:

Marcato:

Pizzicato:

Slur:

Staccato:

Tenuto:

Call and response:

Dynamics:

Crescendo:

Diminuendo:

Terrace Dynamics:

Pianissimo (pp):

Piano (p):

Mezzo piano (mp):

Mezzo forte (mf):

Forte (f):

Fortissimo (ff):

Improvisation, improvisatory:

Phrasing:

Tempo:

Adagio:

Allegro:

Andante:

Andantino:

Grave:

Largo:

Lento:

moderato:

Presto:

Vivace:

Accelerando:

Ritardando:

Ritenuto:

Rubato:

Accent:

Agogic accent:

Dynamic accent:

Metrical accent:

Anacrusis (pickup; upbeat):

Asymmetrical Meter:

Augmentation:

Bar line:

Beat:

Beat type:

Compound:

Simple:

Changing Meter (multimeter):

Cross Rhythm:

Diminution:

Dot, double dot:

Dotted Rhythm:

Duplet:

Duration:

Hemiola:

Irregular meter:

Meter:

Duple:

Quadruple:

Triple:

Note value:

Polyrhythm:

Pulse:

Rhythm:

Swing Rhythm:

Suncopation:

Tempo:

Tie:

Time Signature:

Triplet:

Ionian:

Dorian:

Phrygian:

Lydian:

Mixolydian:

Aeolian:

Locrian:

Parallel:

Relative:

Pentatonic:

Tetrachord:

Tonal:

Tonality:

Whole-tone Scale:

Lyrics:

Melismatic:

Stanza:

Syllabic:

Alberti:

Canon:

Canonic:

Chordal acompaniment:

Contrapuntal:

Counterpoint:

Imitation:

Imitative:

Polyphony:

Nonimitative polyphony:

Countermelody:

Fugal imitation:

Heterophony, heterophonic:

Chordal homophony:

Chordal texture (homorhythmic):

Melody with accompaniment:

Instrumentation:

Brass:

Continuo:

Percussion:

Rhythm section:

Strings:

timbre:

Woodwinds:

Melody:

Monophony, monophonic:

Obbligato:

Ostinato:

Polyphony, polyphonic:

Register:

Solo, soli:

Tessitura:

Tutti:

Walking bass:

Aria:

Art Song:

Concerto:

Fugue:

Genre:

Interlude:

Opera:

Prelude:

Postlude:

Sonata:

Song:

String Quartet:

Symphony: