AP Human Geography Chapter 5

lingua franca
language understood by people who have different native languages
The main difference between languages in the same family, branch, or group is how
recently in time the language were once the same
language group
group of languages that share a common origin but have since evolved into individual languages
language family
group if languages that share a common ancestor before recorded history
basque is a good example of a(n)
isolated language
franglais
the use of English in the French language
geographic study if the distribution of languages provides a good example of
interplay between globalization and local diversity
two largest language families in the world are
Sino-Tibetan and Indo-European
What tribes invaded the British Isles…
(three tribes and one major invasion later)
Angles, Jutes, Saxon
Norman
first speakers of the language that evolved into English were tribes that lived in present-day
Denmark
Dialect developed within England primarily because
different Germanic invaders settled in different regions
Which of the following is NOT a Romance language?
Bulgarian
Romaninan
Italian
French
Portuguese
Bulgarian
language spoken by soldiers stationed throughout the Roman Empire was known as
vulgar latin
most widely spoken language in Brazil
Portuguese
most widely spoken language in Argentina
Spanish
four most frequently branches of Indo-European are
Romance
Germanic
Indo-Iranian
Baltic-Slavic
two most important language in South America
Portuguese and Spanish
Russian is a part of what language branch
Balto-Slavic
Krugans
herders from the steppes of Central Asia
According to Colin Renfrew’s research, Indo-European languages diffused across Europe
with the diffusion of agriculture
Colin Renfrew’s research constitutes much of…………………Hypothesis
Sedentary Farmer
English is part of which language branch
Germanic
Which group of the Germanic family is extinct
East Germanic
Which branch of Indo-European includes Ukrainian
Balto-Slavic
Which branch of Indo-European includes Slovak
Balto-Slavic
Which branch of Indo-European includes Dutch
Germanic
Indo-European language is chiefly spoken in which of there countries?
Estonia
Bulgaria
Finland
Hungary
Bulgaria
Every European country is dominated by Indo-Euoprean speakers except
Finland
Hungary
Estonia
What language group is English and German
West Germanic
literary tradition
written form of a language
isogloss
boundary between language region
second-largest family
Sino-Tibetan
Marija Gimbutas’ theory points for the first speakers of the Indo-European language as the ancient
krugans
Marja Gimbutas has contributed to the…………………Hypothesis
nomadic warrior
when languages are depicted as leave on trees, the roots of the trees below the surface represent
possible prehistoric superfamilies
most important language family in Sub-Saharan Africa
Niger-Congo
survival of any language relies on
political and military strength of its speakers
Flemings and Walloons speak languages belonging to different
language branches
example of a literary tradition is
historical documents and religious texts of the ancient Maya that were partly destroyed by Spanish conquerors
British and American English does NOT differ in
alphabet
gumbo and jazz are terms that originated in English dialects of
African Americans
Immigrants to which American colonies had the most diverse backgrounds in the 1700s and 1800s
Middle Atlantic
dialect
form of language spoken in a local area
when people who speak a given language migrate to a different location and become isolated from the other members of their group
isolation usually results in the differentiation of one language into dialects, followed eventually by two distinct languages
creolized language
mis of indigenous and colonial languages
pidgin language
has no native speakers
celtic
language that was nearly extinct in British-controlled areas but which is now being revived
Icelandic language has changed less than any other Germanic language because of
Iceland’s relative isolation from other places
language spoken by the greatest number of native speakers in the world
mandarin
Chinese is traditionally written in the form of
ideograms
example of a revived language
Hebrew
Flemings and Walloons live in
Belgium
official languages in Switzerland (four)
French
German
Romansh
Italian
Basque is spoken primarily in
the Pyrenees Mountains
Spanish is an important language in the United States primarily because of
the diffusion of Spanish colonies and subsequent migration patterns
Tamil is an important language in
India
Sri Lanka
English language is describe by
recent growth is due to expansion diffusion
diffused along with economic globalization
Indo-European language
lingua franca
English language is “second” or “third” language in many regions where it is used as a(n)
lingua franca
english is the most important in North America primarily because of
diffusion of English colonies
most widely spoken Indo-European language
English
best describes the use of English on the Internet
English has become less dominant but is still the leading Internet language
English has achieved unprecedented acceptance globally due to
its role as a common language of a global economy and culture
in the 1700s, 1800s, and afterward, English diffusion has been strongly related to colonialism and imperialism in many parts of the world bc
conquered peoples wishing to participate in the new government and the increasingly global economy felt pressured to learn English
language
system of communication through speech, a collection of sounds that a group of people understand to have the same meaning
official language
used by government for laws, reports, and public objects, such as road signs, money, and stamps
language is something people…
value
World’s 8 Major Language Families
Indo-European
Sino-tibetan
Niger-Congo
Afro-Asiatic
Austronesian
Dravidian
Altaic
logograms
symbols that represent words, or meaningful parts of the world, rather than sounds (Chinese)
Estonia, Finland, and Hungary are part of what language family
Uralic
india’s official language and
Hindi
Indo-iranian branch is divided into two language groups:
Eastern (indic aka Hindi) and Western (iranian)
West German is divided into two subgroups
high and low
North german is languages found in
Scandinavia
Official languages of the United Nations: (6)
Mandarin
Spanish
French
Russian
English
Arabic
who brought the beginnings of the english language to the British Isles and shared a language similar to that of other peoples in the region from which they came
Angles, Jutes, and Saxons (later known as the Anglo-Saxon after the two larger groups)
who stayed in England although were defeated and enriched the language the Anglo-Saxon’s basic English with new words
Vikings
Vikings came from present-day
Norway
English is quite different from German today primarily because England was conquered by the (name and date)
Normans in 1066
Normans spoke
french
Krugans were
nomadic herders
name four of countries example of how multilingual states deal with it
Belgium
Nigeria
Switzerland
Canada
Southern Belgians (name and language)
Walloons
French
Northern Belgians (name and language)
Flemmings
Flemish
Swiss exist peacefully as a multilingual state bc of their tradition of putting the considerable power in
small communities
Many Native American languages are
extinct languages
Gothic language is an
extinct language
Israel two official languages are
Hebrew
Arabic
one of the most fundamental needs in a global society is a
common language for communication
combination of Spanish and English
Spanglish
denglish
combination of English and german
Canada’s two official languages
English and French
……………… is to Canada as ……………….. is to USA
French; Spanish
Does the USA have an official language?
NO
Name the 8 Major Indo-European branches
Romance
Germanic
Indo-Iranian
Balto-Slavic
Albanian
Armenian
Greek
Celtic
Romance languages derive
latin