AP Human Geography Chapter 5

lingua franca
language understood by people who have different native languages

The main difference between languages in the same family, branch, or group is how
recently in time the language were once the same

language group
group of languages that share a common origin but have since evolved into individual languages

language family
group if languages that share a common ancestor before recorded history

basque is a good example of a(n)
isolated language

franglais
the use of English in the French language

geographic study if the distribution of languages provides a good example of
interplay between globalization and local diversity

two largest language families in the world are
Sino-Tibetan and Indo-European

What tribes invaded the British Isles…
(three tribes and one major invasion later)
Angles, Jutes, Saxon
Norman

first speakers of the language that evolved into English were tribes that lived in present-day
Denmark

Dialect developed within England primarily because
different Germanic invaders settled in different regions

Which of the following is NOT a Romance language?
Bulgarian
Romaninan
Italian
French
Portuguese
Bulgarian

language spoken by soldiers stationed throughout the Roman Empire was known as
vulgar latin

most widely spoken language in Brazil
Portuguese

most widely spoken language in Argentina
Spanish

four most frequently branches of Indo-European are
Romance
Germanic
Indo-Iranian
Baltic-Slavic

two most important language in South America
Portuguese and Spanish

Russian is a part of what language branch
Balto-Slavic

Krugans
herders from the steppes of Central Asia

According to Colin Renfrew’s research, Indo-European languages diffused across Europe
with the diffusion of agriculture

Colin Renfrew’s research constitutes much of…………………Hypothesis
Sedentary Farmer

English is part of which language branch
Germanic

Which group of the Germanic family is extinct
East Germanic

Which branch of Indo-European includes Ukrainian
Balto-Slavic

Which branch of Indo-European includes Slovak
Balto-Slavic

Which branch of Indo-European includes Dutch
Germanic

Indo-European language is chiefly spoken in which of there countries?
Estonia
Bulgaria
Finland
Hungary
Bulgaria

Every European country is dominated by Indo-Euoprean speakers except
Finland
Hungary
Estonia

What language group is English and German
West Germanic

literary tradition
written form of a language

isogloss
boundary between language region

second-largest family
Sino-Tibetan

Marija Gimbutas’ theory points for the first speakers of the Indo-European language as the ancient
krugans

Marja Gimbutas has contributed to the…………………Hypothesis
nomadic warrior

when languages are depicted as leave on trees, the roots of the trees below the surface represent
possible prehistoric superfamilies

most important language family in Sub-Saharan Africa
Niger-Congo

survival of any language relies on
political and military strength of its speakers

Flemings and Walloons speak languages belonging to different
language branches

example of a literary tradition is
historical documents and religious texts of the ancient Maya that were partly destroyed by Spanish conquerors

British and American English does NOT differ in
alphabet

gumbo and jazz are terms that originated in English dialects of
African Americans

Immigrants to which American colonies had the most diverse backgrounds in the 1700s and 1800s
Middle Atlantic

dialect
form of language spoken in a local area

when people who speak a given language migrate to a different location and become isolated from the other members of their group
isolation usually results in the differentiation of one language into dialects, followed eventually by two distinct languages

creolized language
mis of indigenous and colonial languages

pidgin language
has no native speakers

celtic
language that was nearly extinct in British-controlled areas but which is now being revived

Icelandic language has changed less than any other Germanic language because of
Iceland’s relative isolation from other places

language spoken by the greatest number of native speakers in the world
mandarin

Chinese is traditionally written in the form of
ideograms

example of a revived language
Hebrew

Flemings and Walloons live in
Belgium

official languages in Switzerland (four)
French
German
Romansh
Italian

Basque is spoken primarily in
the Pyrenees Mountains

Spanish is an important language in the United States primarily because of
the diffusion of Spanish colonies and subsequent migration patterns

Tamil is an important language in
India
Sri Lanka

English language is describe by
recent growth is due to expansion diffusion
diffused along with economic globalization
Indo-European language
lingua franca

English language is “second” or “third” language in many regions where it is used as a(n)
lingua franca

english is the most important in North America primarily because of
diffusion of English colonies

most widely spoken Indo-European language
English

best describes the use of English on the Internet
English has become less dominant but is still the leading Internet language

English has achieved unprecedented acceptance globally due to
its role as a common language of a global economy and culture

in the 1700s, 1800s, and afterward, English diffusion has been strongly related to colonialism and imperialism in many parts of the world bc
conquered peoples wishing to participate in the new government and the increasingly global economy felt pressured to learn English

language
system of communication through speech, a collection of sounds that a group of people understand to have the same meaning

official language
used by government for laws, reports, and public objects, such as road signs, money, and stamps

language is something people…
value

World’s 8 Major Language Families
Indo-European
Sino-tibetan
Niger-Congo
Afro-Asiatic
Austronesian
Dravidian
Altaic

logograms
symbols that represent words, or meaningful parts of the world, rather than sounds (Chinese)

Estonia, Finland, and Hungary are part of what language family
Uralic

india’s official language and
Hindi

Indo-iranian branch is divided into two language groups:
Eastern (indic aka Hindi) and Western (iranian)

West German is divided into two subgroups
high and low

North german is languages found in
Scandinavia

Official languages of the United Nations: (6)
Mandarin
Spanish
French
Russian
English
Arabic

who brought the beginnings of the english language to the British Isles and shared a language similar to that of other peoples in the region from which they came
Angles, Jutes, and Saxons (later known as the Anglo-Saxon after the two larger groups)

who stayed in England although were defeated and enriched the language the Anglo-Saxon’s basic English with new words
Vikings

Vikings came from present-day
Norway

English is quite different from German today primarily because England was conquered by the (name and date)
Normans in 1066

Normans spoke
french

Krugans were
nomadic herders

name four of countries example of how multilingual states deal with it
Belgium
Nigeria
Switzerland
Canada

Southern Belgians (name and language)
Walloons
French

Northern Belgians (name and language)
Flemmings
Flemish

Swiss exist peacefully as a multilingual state bc of their tradition of putting the considerable power in
small communities

Many Native American languages are
extinct languages

Gothic language is an
extinct language

Israel two official languages are
Hebrew
Arabic

one of the most fundamental needs in a global society is a
common language for communication

combination of Spanish and English
Spanglish

denglish
combination of English and german

Canada’s two official languages
English and French

……………… is to Canada as ……………….. is to USA
French; Spanish

Does the USA have an official language?
NO

Name the 8 Major Indo-European branches
Romance
Germanic
Indo-Iranian
Balto-Slavic
Albanian
Armenian
Greek
Celtic

Romance languages derive
latin

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