AP Human Geography Ch. 1 Key issue 2

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What are two basic concepts that help geographers to explain why every point on Earth is in some ways unique?
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Place Region
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Define Location
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The position that something occupies on Earth’s surface
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Define Toponym
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A name given to a place on earth
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What are four ways that places can receive names?
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-A person (Ex. famous, founder, someone with no connection) -Religion (Ex. St. Louis, St. Paul) -Pioneers (Ex. Finding gold) -Features from the physical environment
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What are three ways that places can change names?
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Promote publicity The meaning behind the name (being offensive) Political upheavals
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Define Site
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The physical character of a place
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What are 7 site characteristics?
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Climate Water sources Topography Soil Vegetation Latitude Elevation
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Human actions have the ability to __________ the characteristics of a site
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modify
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Define situation
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The location of the place relative to the other place (relative characteristics?)
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What role do familiar places have understanding unfamiliar places?
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Familiar places can tell you where unfamiliar places are
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What place is designated as 0 degrees longitude?
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The Royal observatory in Greenwich, England
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What is the name of the line drawn at 0 degrees longitude?
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The Prime Meridian
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What are the other lines of longitude called?
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Arcs or meridians
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What are lines of latitude called?
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Parallels
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How is a degree of longitude or latitude further subdivided?
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By dividing each degree into 60 minutes (‘) and each minute into 60 seconds (\”)
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An example of subdivided location:
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46 * 37′ 10\” N/S 35 * 25′ 30\” W/E It’s always listed as degrees, minutes, seconds, N/S/E/W
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How many degrees of longitude do you need to travel across to pass through one \”hour\” of time (aka one time zone)
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15
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How many time zones are there?
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24
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What is the process to finding how many time zones there are?
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360 * of longitude divided by 15 of longitude = 24
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Where and why were standard time zones first adopted?
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In the U.S in 1883, they were adopted to help the railroads decrease confusion
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What is the longitude of the international date line?
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180 *
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What do geographers that adopt the view of the regional studies approach believe regarding regions
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It’s an area fashioned from nature by a cultural group. \”Culture is the agent, the natural area the medium, the cultural landscape is the result.\” They argue that each region has its own distinctive landscape that results from a unique combination of social relationships and physical processes. \”A region gains uniqueness from possessing not a single human or environmental characteristics, but a combination
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Geographers using the regional studies approach argue that the distinctive landscapes of different regions result from what two things?
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Social relationships Physical processes
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What are three types of regions identified by geographers?
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Formal Functional Vernacular
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Formal regions are also called:
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Uniform Homogeneous
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Definition of Formal Regions
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Area which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics
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Examples of Formal Regions:
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Common language, economic activities, crop environmental property such as climate
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Functional Regions are also called:
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Nodal regions
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Definition of Functional Regions
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An area organized around a node or focal point. The characteristic chosen to define a functional region dominated at a central focus or node and diminishes in importance outward
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Examples of Functional Regions:
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Regions tied to central point by transportation or communication systems or by economic or functional associations
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Vernacular regions are also called:
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Perceptual Region
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Definition of Vernacular Region
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A place that people believe as part of their cultural identity. Regions emerge from informal sense of place rather than from scientific models developed through geographic thought
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Examples of Vernacular Region:
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The South: -Economic- high cotton production, lo graduation rate -Culturally- states who joined confederate during the civil war/ Religion- Baptist -Environmentally- last frost=March, rain in Winter Perceptual=South source of pride, or not as much of one
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How does a geographer conclude that two or more phenomena are spatially associated, that they bear some sort of cause and effect relationship?
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The try to identify *cultural*, *economic*, and *environmental* factors that display similar spatial distributions. Geographers conclude that factors with similar distributions have special associations.
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Three bullet points to the word *Culture
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Customary beliefs Material traits Social forms
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Everyday we think of culture as the…
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collection of novels, paintings, symphonies, and other works produced by talented individuals
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Culture also refers to…
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small living organisms such as those found in yogurt
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Origin of the word culture is \”cultus\” which means
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to care for
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Ideas, beliefs, values, and customs that are cared about with culture:
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Language Religion Ethnicity
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What people take care of with culture:
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Food, clothing, and shelter
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Define Cultural Ecology
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The geographic study of geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships
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Define Environmental Determinism
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A 19th and early 20th century approach to the study of geography which argued that the general laws sought by in human geography could be found in the physical sciences. *Geography was therefore the study of how the physical environment causes physical activities*.
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Possibilism
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The theory that physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action for many alternatives
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How many major types of climates do geographers identify?
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5
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What are the major types of climates that geographers identify?
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Tropical Dry Warm mid-latitude Cold mid-latitude Polar
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In what major way does climate influence human activities?
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People avoid places which are too extreme Too hot, too dry, too wet, too cold
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List the four major biomes, or major plant communities, found naturally on earth
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Forest Savannah Grassland Desert
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What are two problems that geographers are concerned with as far as soil?
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Erosion Depletion of nutrients
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Define Erosion
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occurs when the soil washes away in the rain or blows away in the wind
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Define Depletion of Nutrients
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occurs when plants withdraw more nutrients than natural processes can replace
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Define Geomorphology
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A science: Study of earths landforms/ helps to explain the distribution of people and the choice of economic activities at different locations
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Define Topographic Maps
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Shows detail of physical features such as bodies of water, forests, mountains, valleys, cultural features, buildings, roads, parks, farms, and dams
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The Netherlands: Good Human Adaptation
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-Two types of distinctive types of construction projects: polders and dikes -Polder: Piece of land that is created by draining water from an area -16% of the countries land area -Most of the land is reserved for agricultural -Massive dikes to prevent the North Sea from flooding much of the country
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Florida: Bad Human Adaptation
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-Everglades: A sensitive ecosystem of plants and animals once thrived in this distinctive landscape, much of it has been destroyed by human action -Levee built around Lake Okeechobee 1930’s -Drained the northern 1/3 of Everglades 1940’s -Diverted the Kisimmee River into canals 1950’s -Constructed dikes and levees near Miami and Ft. Landerdale 1960’s -Benefit land for growing sugarcane, protected farmland for people to build on and not get flooded. Result: Polluted water killing environment.

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