AP Gov Policy Making Study Stacks

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Domestic Policy
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Administrative decisions related to all issues and activity within a nation’s borders.
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LBJ’s \”War On Crime\”
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Johnson’s commission that was created to study causes of crime and then come up with solutions to those causes.
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Gun Control
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Refers to laws that regulate the manufacturing, selling, transfer, modification, and possession, or use of firearms.
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Federal Spending on crime initiatives
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Money spent by government designed to cut down on crime (Prisons, Police Officers, etc…)
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Harsher Punishments
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Clinton issued and stated offender can receive death penalty or be punished by the \”Three Strikes Law\”
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Three Strikes Law
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Significantly increases punishment for felons who have created two or more violent crimes in the past (limits ability to receive punishment and not life sentence)
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\”War On Drugs\”
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Series of actions undertaken by the government through military action and aid that was aimed at getting rid of the trading of illegal drugs.
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Brown V Board
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A 1954 court case that officially ended segregation within schools as the Plessy v Ferguson defined \”separate but equal\” was flawed thus unequal.
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State Government’s Role
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The state government’s role in education is to provide funds, licensing to private and higher institutions, guidance and oversight to school boards, licensing for teachers, entrance exams or licenses for hopeful education personnel, overseeing in instances of special needs for some reason, and to elect members of the governing school board and the state boards of education.
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Elementary and Secondary Education Act
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A 1965 act designed to provide financial assistance for those in need of it (A.K.A Educationally deprived and it was the most expensive education bill ever passed.).
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Department of Education
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A 1979 created portion of the presidential cabinet established by Jimmy Carter meant to strengthen federal commitment to ensuring more equal educational opportunities, improve coordination in federal education programs, increase parental, public, and student involvement in education programs, promote improvements in the overall education and sharing of information, increase congressional and presidential accountability in the area of education, to improve the dispersal and efficiency of federally allocated funds as well as the management of educational activities, and to help provide a back up or helping hand to the states in their areas of control on education.
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School Vouchers
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A school Voucher is a a government funded piece of paper redeemable for a tuition fee at a school other than the public school that is free of charge.
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No Child Left Behind
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Act signed into law by George Bush in 2002 meant to hold schools accountable for student education and to close the gap between poor and wealthy students as well as american competitiveness through overall improvement in teaching, learning, and the overall school environment.
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Renewable Resources
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A resource that can be used again later on (A.K.A Wind, Solar, and Hydro power and biomass).
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Global Warming
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The term used to describe the overall gradual increase in the earth’s temperature in the oceans as well as the atmosphere (Thought to be permanent).
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Toxic Waste Disposal
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A Superfund created to establish dumping sites for toxic waste in 1980 that ultimately received backlash.
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Environmental Protection Agency
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A portion of the presidential cabinet established in 1970 by Richard Nixon meant to deal with anything related to the environment and a little bit regarding human health (Like pollution and other such harmful things of the environment be it natural or \”man-made\”).
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Environmental Impact Statement
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A statement that must be issued by federal agencies to the EPA as of the National Environmental Policy Act to show how policies or plans could potentially impact the environment as a whole.
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Clean Air Act
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A 1970 Act that was set to control overall air pollution which happened to be one of the first laws the U.S made in trying to touch anything environmentally related.
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Water Pollution Control Act
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A 1972 Act made over the concern of the safety of public water and to limit pollution in the navigable and used waterways.
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Endangered Species Act
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A 1973 act meant to save the species on the brink of extinction and to educate people on the importance of the wildlife habitat as well as the species within the habitat.
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Medicare
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Established in 1966 and is used to provide health insurance for those 65 or older, patients with End-Stage Renal Disease, as well as certain younger people.
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Medicaid
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Established to provide low-cost health insurance to; pregnant women, the elderly, low-income families, as well as those with a disability or dependent children.
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Veterans Administration
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Created in 1930 and given cabinet-level status is a department set on giving benefits to war veterans and their families (Be it in life or death).
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Food and Drug Administration
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Created in 1906 the FDA is a agency that was created to ensure the health of people by monitoring how \”safe\” or \”consumable\” a particular drug or food item may be.
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Clinton’s Health Care Proposals
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Made in 1993 to increase consumer choice in health care plans as well as competition in the medical plans given as well as provisions on health care and medicaid beneficiaries (Case management, medical management, and evaluations and assessments were also included).
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Obama-Care
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Also known as the Affordable Healthcare Act signed in 2010 meant to make coverage more affordable and create better care for individuals in need of such care.
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Social Welfare Origins
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Social Welfare concepts originated during the presidency of FDR with the New Deal Concepts to establish the first national welfare system.
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Social Security Act
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Created in 1935 to provide aid and economic protections to different populations in different ways.
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LBJ’s Great Society
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Domestic programs launched by Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964-1965 aimed at eliminating poverty and racial injustice.
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Aid to Families with Dependent Children
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A program administered and funded by the state and federal government to provide financial assistance to needy families (55% of AFDC Funds are from Fed. Gov.).
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Temporary Aid for Needy Families
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Provides temporary financial assistance for pregnant women or those with one or more dependent children (Food, Shelter, Utilities, and non-medical expenses).
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Economic Policy
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Actions undertaken by the Government in the name of economics (Taxes, Budgets, Int. Rates, and Nat. Ownership).
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Federal Reserve
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Central Banking system of the U.S created in 1913 with several responsibilities (Setting Int. rates, influencing money and credit, regulating institutions, etc…).
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Mixed Economy
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Systems of either Markets and economic planning as well as public and private ownership or free markets and economic interventionism.
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Securities and Exchange Commision
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Created by FDR in 1934 the SEC is set to; facilitate capital formation, Be a watchdog over Wall Street, and Protect investors by maintaining fair, orderly, and efficient markets.
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Minimum Wage
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The lowest number that can be paid to an individual per hour in the workplace as stated by the federal government though states may have their own laws ($7.25 as of 2009).
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Unemployment
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The state of being unemployed in which the national rate is made by the U.S Bureau of Labor Statistics.
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Inflation
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Defined by a sustained increase in the general price for goods and services (measured by annual percentage increase).
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Office of Management and Budget
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The body that works to assist the president in providing a budget at the end of the fiscal year through providing statistics on efficiency as well as reports and testimonies from the agencies themselves.
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Monetary Policy
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How the government uses inflation or interest rates to influence the money supply.
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Fiscal Policy
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How the government uses taxes and spending levels to influence and or monitor the national economy.
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Discretionary Spending
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Gov. spending implemented through an appropriations bill which is optional in fiscal policy but mandatory in entitlement programs.
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Non-Discretionary Spending
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Spending required by budget, contract, or other commitment that is monitored and must be followed absolutely.
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National Debt
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Amount owed by the Federal Government of the United States at any given time to another party or nation.
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Deficit
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The federal Deficit is defined by the total amount of spending that exceeded the given budget for that given year.
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World Trade Organization
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A 1995 created Global Organization that works to set rules of trade between nations to ensure that trade runs smoothly.
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Antitrust Policy
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A collection of State and Federal laws that regulate conduct and organization of business corporations generally to promote competition for the benefit of consumers.
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Monetarism
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Theory created by Milton Friedman it is an economic theory revolving around the macroeconomic effects of the supply of money and central banking.
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Keynesianism
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Theory established by John Maynard Keynes in 1930 established to combat the Great Depression in which Keynes advocated for increased governmental expenditures and lowered taxes to stimulate demand and pull the global economy out of the great depression.
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Supply-Side Economics
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Macroeconomic theory centered around the belief that economic growth can most effectively be attained through investing in capital and by lowering barriers on the production of goods and services.
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Planning
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Theory centered around the belief that key decisions must be made by the federal government (opposite of laissez-faire).
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Foreign Policy
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Governmental Actions or strategy to deal with the other nations of the world.
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United Nations
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Founded in 1945 the UN serves to provide overall aid and or peace to its 193 nations (humanitarian or gov. aid, peace and security against terrorism and other things, provide food for nations, and more).
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North Atlantic Treaty Organization
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NATO is a military alliance comprised of 28 nations set to help one of the other member nations during an emergency as an attack on one constitutes action by all (supposedly).
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European Union
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Established in 1993 to be some sort of politico-economic alliance for its members which obviously are all in Europe (Covers 508 million and has 28 current members).
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Commander in Chief
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One of the roles of the president in which he is in supreme control over the armed forces.
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War Powers Act
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1973 Act meant to establish the congressional role in war as it was meant to say that after 60 days if a congressional ok was not given troops sent by the president must be returned (Provided a Legislative Veto).
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Department of State
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Portion of the presidential cabinet established in 1789 meant to influence foreign policy by advising the president and negotiating treaties and agreements.
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Secretary of State
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The chief foreign affairs adviser for the president once ok’d by the senate and carries out policies through the state departments as well as the Foreign Service of the United States.
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Department of Defense
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Part of the presidential cabinet who’s duties entail providing military services to deter war and provide security for the U.S.
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Secretary of Defense
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Advises the president in the area of defense and has authority and control over the department of defense.
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Joint Chiefs of Staff
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Body of senior uniform leaders of the military (chairman is highest military adviser of the pres) that work to advise the Secretary of defense, the president, the national security council, as well as the homeland security council (has no military command however).
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Central Intelligence Agency
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The CIA is a federal agency established in 1947 is meant to gather, process, and analyze national security information from around the world mainly through the use of human intelligence.
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National Security Agency
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The NSA is a 1952 established agency that plays the role of global monitor; however, it also collects and processes information and data for foreign intelligence for missions designed to take out either terrorists or other threats to national security.
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National Security Council
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Established in 1947 meant to be the principal forum for the president to consider national security and foreign policy matters along with his senior security advisers and cabinet officials.
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Congress’ \”Power of the Purse\”
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Refers to the power of congress given in article one of the constitution for taxing and spending (Art 1. Sect 8. Clause 1) as well as appropriations (Art 1. Sect 7. Clause 9).
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Senate Foreign Relations Committee
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Standing Committee within the senate burdened with the task of leading foreign-policy legislation and debate within the senate.
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House Committee on Foreign Affairs
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Standing Committee within the House of Reps. burdened with the task of of having jurisdiction over bills and investigations related to the foreign affairs of the U.S.
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Isolationism
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Foreign Policy of the U.S between WWI & WWII in which the U.S stayed out of worldly affairs especially those anything concerning Europe.
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Cold War
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Period between 1945 and 1991 in which fear of communism led to tension between the Western part of the world and the eastern part of the world.
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Containment
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Foreign Policy used by the U.S during the Cold War designed to stop the spread of communism throughout the rest or the \”free world\”.
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Arms Race
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Period of time in which the U.S and Soviet Union engaged in the creation of nuclear weapons in order to intimidate the other putting them in fear of a nuclear war.
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Mutual Assured Destruction
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Doctrine of Military Strategy and national security policy in which the number of nuclear weapons could have destroyed either U.S or the Soviet Union had either fired their weapons during the Cold War.
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Vietnam War
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War in which the United States got involved in during the 1970s in which the Southern Vietnam forces and the U.S were pitted against the Vietcong or the communist north Vietnam and its southern allies (Very unpopular in the U.S and seen as a huge failure).
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DĂ©tente
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Period of time beginning around 1971 in which relations between the Soviet Union and the U.S improved under the Nixon era (often entitled unfreezing).
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Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) or \”Star Wars\”
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Program that began in 1983 under Ronald Reagan designed to create a sophisticated anti-ballistic missile defense system in order to prevent missile attacks by other countries (scrapped due to sheer cost of the overall program).
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War on Terror
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Refers to the time period of global initiatives against terrorism that began immediately following the September 11 attacks.
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Axis of Evil
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Term used by George Bush during his 2002 State of the Union address to describe nations that he claimed helped and encouraged terrorism (creating WMDs).
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Afghanistan
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A 13-year war occurred between U.S and Afghanistan with some help from NATO in response to the 9/11 attacks which ended in 2014 and two years prior in 2012 U.S and Afghanistan and the U.S signed the enduring Strategic Partnership Agreement designed to combat terrorism and and promoting peace and democratic values.
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Iraq
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A war Occurred from 2003 to 2011 between Iraq and The U.S as well as Great Britain to topple the regime of Saddam Hussein and since its end in 2011 the relationship between the U.S and Iraq has grown immensely as a partnership occurred and Iraq is now the voice of moderation and democracy within the Middle East.
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Nuclear Proliferation
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The spread of nuclear weapons, fissionable material, weapons applicable nuclear technology, and information to non-recognized \”Nuclear Weapon States\” by the Nuclear Proliferation Treaty or the NPT.

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