AP European History The Expansion of Europe in the 18th Century

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Common People
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Struggled with poverty and uncertainty, with the landlord, and tax collector.
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Small Elites
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Progress was a dream, and they improved in science and thought.
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Agriculture and the Land
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At the end of the 17th century the economy was agrarian. In eastern Europe, there was a high percentage of lavish from the land. The land was failing, and the outputs were extremely low. When the land failed or there was bad weather; the grain reserves exhausted, crises, famine foods, weak people, illnesses, epidemics, and a population decrease (villages could lose up to a third).
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The Open Field System
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The land was divided to be cultivated by peasants of a given village into several large fields, which were cut up into long narrow strips. Planting year after year= nitrogen depletion= crop failure. Manure was limited and the field may lie fallow for a whole year. The Middle Ages alternated in this system. The villages are open meadows for hay and natural pasture= common lands. These villages are set aside for pastured animals, and many places were followed by a period of gleaning grain.
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The Agricultural Revolution
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Started in the 18th century. The peasants, for improving, could take land from those who owned but did not labor. The social and political forces of elites were read to crush protest. Technology progress was a possibility to improve if they could replace crops. This movement took a long time, and was a huge milestone. -Alternated grain with certain nitrogen storing crops -sophisticated crop rotation -more scientific farming
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Serfdom in the west
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Peasants but no serfdom. They had a hard life, and could live off of land holdings.
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Serfdom in the east
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The peasants were word, serfs were forced into labor, and were unpaid and sold.
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Effects of the Agricultural Revolution
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There was an ideal feed for animals, due to the building of small herds= more fertilizer for more grain. The advocates encouraged all village landowners to agree to crop rotations, and enclosures were created to farm more effectively. Small landowners opposed it, posed risks for noble landowners. Old and new systems coexisted for many years because some peasants successfully opposed it.
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Holland
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Lead the road to new methods of farming in the Low Lands. -Agriculture was specialized and commercialized -Densely populated -Dutch forced to seek maximum yields and increase cultivated area through draining swamps -Growth of towns, allowed for region specialization
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English Agriculture
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The received draining instructions. They had a radical transformation which meant more food
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Jethro Tull
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He was an English innovator who worked on drilling distributed seeds, and also sought livestock improvements. He had selective breeding of ordinary livestock for better horses.
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Cornelius Vermuyden
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He was a Dutch man who directed a drainage project. He converted 40,00 acres of marsh to farmable land in the Low Countries because of new agricultural methods.
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Costs on Enclosures
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The aristocracy benefitted from the higher yields. However, the continental landowners did not. The parliament passed enclosure acts authorizing the fencing of open fields (persuaded by aristocracy). The costs divided equally amongst the people; peasants suffered and lost some access to pastures. The increase of enclosures in England made more farmers landless. There were very few large landowners, but many landless who labored for wages. In between was small and independent peasant farmers who held their own land, and tenant farmers who rented land and when they sold out put in cash market. There was a reduced access of poor men and women to the land. -Small independent decline -tenant farmers mastered new methods, and had increased employment opportunities -The landless fallow
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There was a rise of _________ due to the Enclosures
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Market oriented estate agriculture and the emergence of landless rural proletariat.
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Proletarianization
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The transformation of large numbers of small peasant farmers to landless rural wage earners.
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Population Limitations
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It grew slowly following a cyclical pattern that influenced social and economic life. The lords responded to labor shortage by returning serfdom in the west. The black death, and later on eventually the population stopped, and birth rates and death rates were high. In colonial areas, the natural increases by 1%. The causes of death were famine, epidemics, and war. The war spread disease and disrupted agricultural cycle. In Germany 2/3 population decreased in some areas.
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Black Death
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Big population collapse that increased the standard of living for peasants and artisans.
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Population in 18th century
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There were fewer deaths, and the plague disappeared because of the strict quarantine measures in mediterranean ports, brown rats, and carrier isolations. The medical advancements were not huge contributors; there was only an inoculation against small pox and this did little. There was improvements in water supply and sewage which increased good public health, and reduced disease and insect populations. The canal and road building= advancements in transport= less impact of crop failure. The wars were less destructive, and there was new foods.
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Proindustrialization
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The stage of the rural industrial development with wage workers and hand tools that presided emergence of large scale factory industries.
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The Putting Out Sytem
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MERCHANT: -loaned raw materials to several cottage workers who processed it in their homes and returned the product to merchant -paid the workers for their work by the piece and sold the product -some workers bought their own materials and worked in groups
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Capitalism in the POS
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merchants needed large amounts of capital which they held in the form of goods being worked up and sold in distant markets. They sought profits
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Competitive Advantages of POS
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-underemployed labor -made many kinds of goods
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Ways Rural Manufacturing Spread in Countries
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England- first; spinning and weaving of wool, textiles France- Urban manufacturing, encouraged cotton manufacturing to help the poor Low Countries- The government reduced Guild power
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Textile Industry
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-The putting out system for making linen, woolen and cotton cloths -Rural worker lived in small cottage with a loom (flying shuttle), spinning wheels, dye tubs FAMILY INDUSTRY -women and children prepared raw materials and spun thread -man wove thread -children threaded cotton and combed it and cleaned it -mother spun it into thread -imbalance, needed many people so wife recruited -need for thread -weavers could even become capitalist
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Worker and employer relationships TI
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There was constant disputes over weights of materials and the quality of the cloth. Merchants accused the workers of stealing. The rural labor was cheap, scattered and poorly organized. The workers worked in spurts, Holy mondays, and if the quota was not completed there was little a merchant could do.
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Mercantilism
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The system of economic regulations aimed at increasing the power of the state and creating a favorable balance of foreign trade to increase a country’s stock of gold (used to pay for war)
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England Mercantilism
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The government economic regulations could serve private interests of individuals and the public needs of the state while others put state needs first
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Navigational Acts
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The merchants and shipowners monopoly on trade with the colony; helped the British and colonists; form of economic warfare. The initial target was the Dutch; there was three wars= damage to Dutch shipping and commerce
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French and English Rivalry
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There were wars which would become the leading maritime power. The war of Spanish Succession= Britain wins (asiento). War of Austrian Succession= no change. The Seven Years War= fighting in North America= French built more forts in Canada.
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Seven Years War
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Montcalm scored victories but was destroyed by superior British sea power. The Treaty of Paris= France lost possessions in mainland, and British industry grew and realized goal of monopolizing vast trading and colonial empire.
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Land and Labor in British America
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-Native Americans: British outlet for surplus population= immigration -Settlers shared rights of European conquest -situation differed from British Isles -Setters could obtain own farms on easy terms because of personal freedom -kept most of what they produced -growth of slavery, growing African transport -growth in Caribbean too, white farmers sold out and migrated to colonies -large plantations almost entirely worked on by blacks -exploitation increased tobacco production -slavery uncommon in New England middle colonies, areas exported foods to west Indies, plantation owners supplied British Isles with products -abundance of free land= rapid increase in colonial population -white population multiplied as more immigrants raised large families which later ended in poverty -high standard of living and income in Britain
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Britain system with profit
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mercantile system
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England was gradually losing sales to?
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Traditional European markets
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England relied on the sale of…
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wool
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States in Europe tried to develop their own __________ __________ in order to deal with their _________ ________
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cottage industries over population
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Exports became…
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balanced and diversified -America and Africa= metals
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The Atlantic Slave trade
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-Forced migration of millions of Africans= key element in the Atlantic system and western economic expansion -many died en route -many imported to satisfy demand of rise in labor -made possible large scale production: accounted for more than 4/5 of all American goods produced for sale; generated hard cash to pay for European manufactured goods -After wars over slave export control in 1700s, British leader in trade and Europe cut back on fighting and concentrated on commerce -African dealers brought slaves to shore= ships move easily along coast -Increased demand for slaves -Africans secured some foreign products
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Consequences of Slave Trade
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-wars between Africans= leaders buy guns and powder -congo: search for slaves destroyed monarchy and unity -raids for slaves -inhumanity -punishments of slave sellers -population of Africa depletes -African slave trade= business activities -shiploads of slaves never land in Northwest Europe -runaways accepted by poor, unions in England -1775: campaign for slavery abolishment
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British Women involvement in slaves
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They denounced immortality of the slave trade; later in 1807 Parliament abolished the slave trade.
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Spanish Empire During Philip V
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It held together and prospered. Phillip had new ideas from France, and peace was restored. The reforming ministers under strengthened the state finances and defense. Spain received Louisiana, and defended from British attacks. Spanish influence extended by missionaries. It made up 1/2 the world’s silver production.
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Creoles
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They purchased luxury by food production from silver mining and the merchants handled trade and smuggling. They controlled land, and strived for aristocracy. The believed that field work was for peasants, and the Native Americans suited their needs.
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Debt Patronage
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Slavery and forced labor (serfdom). The Creoles kept the estate Christianized, debt bondage advanced food, shelter, and money.
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Mestizo
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The middle class Native American and European population.
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Mixed populations in the Spanish Americas
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20% white 30% mestizo pure blood Indians Africans -The sugar plantations in Brazil, culture intermingled, many races
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Economics opposition
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-strongly reacted against mercantilism -creole merchants against spain regulations -English merchants complained over exclusive trading rights -merchants in countries campaigned for free trade
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Adam Smith
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-Modern Economics -mercantilism unfair, government regulations unfair -free competition better- equal rights -system of natural liberty -Government: defense against natural liberty, maintain civil order with courts and protection, sponsor public works and institutions -enlightenment= reason for truth of secular world -modest ages= yes -employers unfair -pursuit of self interest -invisible hand of free competition disciplined greed -effective wealth ECONOMIC LIBERALISM AND UNREGULATED CAPITALISM

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