AP European History – Chapter 27 & 28

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What did Germany do to start WWII?
answer

They invaded Poland in 1939
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What was logical positivism?
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a philosophy that sees meaning in only those beliefs that can be empirically proven, and that therefore rejects most of the concerns of traditional philosophy, form the existence of God to the meaning of happiness, as nonsense
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What did Friedrich Nietzsche argue in his Untimely Meditations?
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Since classical Athens, the West has been overemphasizing rationality and stifling the authentic passions and animal instincts that drive human activity and true creativity
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Who was Jean Paul Sartre?
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A famous French existentialist who joined the French resistance and became enormously influential and offered powerful but unsettling answers to the profound moral issues and crisis of the first half of the 20th century
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Who was Søren Kierkegaard?
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A Danish religious philosopher and forerunner of extistentialism
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Who is Georges Sorel?
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French socialist thinker who rejected democracy and believed that the masses of the new socialist society would have to be tightly controlled by a small revolutionary elite
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What is existentialism?
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A philosophy that stresses the meaninglessness of existence and the importance of the individual in an uncertain world
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What did Jean-Paul Sartre mean when he said, \”existence precedes essence\” ?
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there are no God-given, timeless truths outside or independent of individual existence.
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What was one of the main pillars supporting Western society’s optimistic and rationalistic worldview?
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Science
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What is Albert Einstein’s theory of special relativity?
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time and space are relative to the observer and that only the speed of light remains constant
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What is the idea that Werner Heisenberg formulated?
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Uncertainty Principle
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What did the Uncertainty Principle postulate?
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It postulated that nature is ultimately unknowable and unpredictable
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What did Sigmund Freud conclude?
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that human behavior was was basically irrational, governed by the unconscious, a mental reservoir that contained vital instinctual drives and powerful memories
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What is the 3 structures of the self?
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the id, ego, and superego
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What is the id?
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the primitive, irrational structure of the self that was entirely unconscious; was the source of sexual, aggressive, and pleasure-seeking instincts which sought fulfillment of all desires and was totally amoral; was kept in check by the superego
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What is the superego?
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the conscience or internalized voice of parental or social control; irrational and overly strict structure of the self that was puritan and was in constant conflict with the id
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What is the ego?
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the rational self that was mostly conscious and worked to negotiate between the demands of the id and the superego
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What was Western literature influenced by?
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the general intellectual climate of pessimism, relativism, and alienation
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What is the stream of consciousness technique?
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a literary technique, found in the works by Virginia Woolf, James Joyce, and others, that uses interior monologue – a character’s thoughts and feelings as they occur – to explore the human psyche
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What did Marcel Proust recall in his book, Remembrance of Things Past?
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recalled bittersweet memories of childhood and youthful love and tried to discover their innermost meaning
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What is modernism?
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a label given to the artistic and cultural movements of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, which were typified by radical experimentation that challenged traditional forms of artistic expression
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What is functionalism?
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the principle that buildings, like industrial products, should serve as well as possible the purpose for which they were made
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What is Bauhaus?
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A German interdisciplinary school of fine and applied arts that brought together many leading modern architects, designers, and theatrical innovations.
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What is dadaism?
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an artistic movement of the 1920’s and 1930s that attacked all accepted standards of art and behavior and delighted in outrageous conduct
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What was the name of the ballet composed by Igor Stravinsky that practically caused a riot when performed in paris because of its pulsating, dissonant rhythms, and was almost pornagraphic?
answer

The Rite of Spring
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Who wrote the Collective Dada Manifesto of 1920 which captured the playfulness of Dada but also the movement’s critical edge?
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Richard Huelsenbeck
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What were some examples of mass culture?
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professional sporting events, radio, cinema, print media (newspaper, inexpensive books, and magazines), restaurants, theatrical revenues, and nightclubs
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What were \”new woman\”?
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somewhat stereotypical image of the modern and independent working woman popular in the 1920s
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Cinema first emerged where?
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In the United states around 1880, driven in part by inventions of Thomas Edison
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What did the movie, The Battle of Somme, intend to do?
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Intended to encourage popular support for the war
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What was the Dawes Plan?
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War reparations agreement that reduced Germany’s yearly payments, made payment dependant on economic prosperity, and granted large U.S. loans to promote recovery.
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What was the Great Depression?
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a worldwide economic depression from 1929-1939, unique in its severity and duration and with slow and uneven recovery
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What U.S. event added to the Great Depression?
answer

the Dust Bowl
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What was the Popular Front?
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a short-lived New Deal-inspired alliance in France led by Léon Blum that encouraged the union movement and launched a far-reaching program of social reform.
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What was totalitarianism?
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a radical dictatorship that exercises \”total claims\” over the beliefs and behavior of its citizens by taking control of the economic, social, intellectual, and cultural aspects of society
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What is fascism?
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a movement characterized by extreme, often expansionist nationalism, antisocialism, a dynamic and violent leader, and the glorification of war and the military
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What is eugenics?
answer

a pseudoscientific doctrine that maintains that the selective breeding of human beings can improve the general characteristics of a national population, which helped inspire Nazi ideas about \”race and space\” and ultimately contributed to the Holocaust
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Who launched the five-year plan?
answer

Stalin
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What was the five-year plan?
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a plan launched by Stalin in 1928, and termed the \”revolution from above,\” aimed at modernizing the Soviet Union and creating a new communist society with new attitudes, new loyalties, and a new socialist humanity
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What was the New Economic Policy (NEP)?
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Lenin’s 1921 policy to re-establish limited economic freedom in an attempt to rebuild agriculture and industry in the face of economic disintegration
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What was the collectivization of agriculture?
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the forcible consolidation of individual peasant farms into large state-controlled enterprises in the Soviet Union under Stalin
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Who were the Kulaks?
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the better-off peasants who were stripped of land and livestock under Stalin and were generally not permitted to join collective farms; many of them starved or were deported to forced-labor camps for \”re-education\”
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Who were the Black Shirts?
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Mussolini’s private militia that destroyed socialist newspapers, union halls, and Socialist Party headquarters, eventually pushing Socialist out of the city governments of northern Italy
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What was National Socialism?
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a movement born of extreme nationalism and racism, led by Adolf Hitler, that ruled Germany from 1933-1935 and forced Europe into the Second World War
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What was the Enabling Act?
answer

an act pushed through the Reichstag by the Nazis the gave Hitler absolute dictatorial power for four years
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Why were the Enabling Acts a bad thing?
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Allowed Hitler to be in control to where he could make his rule permanent
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What was appeasement?
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the British policy toward Germany prior to WWII that aimed at granting Hitler whatever he wanted, including western Czechoslovakia, in order to avoid war
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What was the New Order?
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Hitler’s program based on radical imperialism, which gave preferential treatment to the Nordic peoples; the the French, an \”inferior\” Latin people, occupied a middle position, and Slavs and Jews were treated harshly as \”subhumans\”
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What was the Holocaust?
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the systematic effort of the Nazi state to exterminate all European Jews and other groups deemed racially inferior during WWII
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Winston Churchill called the Battle of El Alamein in May 1942 what?
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\”Hinge of Fate\”
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Parliamentary Governments of Germany are controlled by who?
answer

Moderate businessmen tended to dominate various German coalition governments
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Women in Stalin’s Soviet Union had what kind of opportunities and could do what compared to other Women?
answer

had more access to education and new working opportunities, especially medicine, and could enter the ranks of specialists in science and industry
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Who was Arnold Shöenberg?
answer

a Viennese composer created compositions of sounds without recognizable harmonies since he abandoned traditional harmony and tonality
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What was the Volksgemeinschaft?
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Huge waves of propaganda supported the new regimes as well, Hitler Youth, League of German Women, German Labor Front
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What was the Labour Party?
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was the champion of the working classes and of greater social equality
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Who was Gabriel Marcel?
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French Catholic Christian existentialist who denounced anti-Semitism ?supported closer ties with non-Catholics
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What were the problems facing Nazi resistance groups?
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The resistance groups tried to fight back, but they weren’t united Communists and socialists disagreed with more centrist or nationalist groups on goals and tactics Sometimes they fought each other
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What were the goals of the religious opponents of the Nazis?
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Protestants and Catholics tried hard to preserve religious life in Germany, not overthrow Hitler
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What caused the fall of appeasement?
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Chamberlain (British prime minister) decided to let Hitler take Czechoslovakia to keep the peace When Hitler decided to attack Poland, Britain said they would attack Hitler signed a nonaggression pact with Stalin, then moved into Poland. Two days later, Britain and France declared war, and WWII had begun
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Hitler’s New Order was based on what?
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racial imperialism
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Who was Nellie Melba?
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Sang on the first radio broadcast in London; Sang in English, Italian, and French and was heard all over Europe on June 16, 1920; started the radio
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What did Gabriel Marcel hunger for?
answer

Catholicism and religious belief provided hope, humanity, honesty, and piety
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What did Gabriel Marcel denounce?
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He denounced anti-Semitism and supported closer ties with non-Catholics
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Who created the New Deal?
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FDR (Franklin D. Roosevelt)
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Who was FDR?
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President of the United States during WWII; rejected socialism and government ownership of industry; created the National Recovery Administration (NRA) and the Works Progress Administration (WPA)
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Who was James Joyce?
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An Irish novelist who wrote the stream-of-consciousness novel Ulysses and abandoned conventional plot that broke formal rules of grammar, and blended foreign words into a confusing mess of language mirroring life itself, a gigantic riddle
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What is the British Broadcasting Corporation?
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An independent public corporation that Parliament set that was supported by licensing fees
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Who was Warner Heisenberg?
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A German physicist who formulated the uncertainty principle and said that everything was relative, so it is dependent on the observer’s frame of reference
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Who was Sigmund Freud?
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He said that human behavior was basically irrational, too much rational thinking and and traditional moral values would makecivilization difficult, and tha an imbalance of the self would create mental illness; created the id, ego, and superego
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Who wrote Civilization and Its Discontents?
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Sigmund Freud
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Who was John Maynard Keynes?
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A British economist who wrote Economic Consequences of the Peace and created sympathy for Germany in the English-speaking world
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What treaty did John Maynard Keynes denounce and urged for a revision of it?
answer

Treaty of Versailles
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Who was Oswald Spengler?
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A German high school teacher who said that every culture experiences a life cycle of growth and decline and that Western civilization was old and would soon be overtake by the rise of East Asia
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Who wrote The Decline of the West?
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Oswald Spengler
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Who took the US off the gold standard and devalued the dollar to raise US prices and rescue farmers?
answer

Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR)
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What was the National Recovery Administration?
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an administration created by FDR which broke the tradition of free competition
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Why FDR create new agencies?
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To help people do projects and have work (like the WPA)
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What was Georges Sorel’s view on socialism?
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That socialism would shatter capitalist society through a great general strike of all working people inspired by the myth of revolution
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What was Georges Sorel’s opinion about Marxian socialism?
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Marxian socialism was an inspiring but unprovable religion, not a scientific truth like Karl Marx said
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What was the reason why the US failed to pass the Treaty of Versailles?
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Wilson didn’t ratify the treaty
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Why did French leaders want the Treaty of Versailles ratified?
answer

They saw it as their last hope to bog Germany down forever and secure France
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What were the French not willing to do when the Wiemar Republic declared that they couldn’t pay anymore?
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not willing to accept a moratorium on reparations
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What did the Wiemar Republic’s prime minister decide they should do with the reparations to France?
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They should call Germany’s buff to see the entire peace settlement dissolve to France’s dissadvantage
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What did the French and Belgian armies moving out of the Rhineland and into the Ruhr district do?
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created international crisis
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What would France do if they couldn’t forcibly collect the money from the Wiemar Republic?
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They would use occupation to force them to accept the Treaty of Versailles
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What caused hyperinflation in Germany?
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The German government printing money to pay bill to support the striking Ruhr workers and their employees, causing runaway inflation
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What caused the collapse of the United States’s stock market?
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The early large inequalities in income, serious imbalance between actual investment, and stock market speculation set up to where net investments fell as money flooded into stocks
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What was the implementation of the WPA?
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It was a new agency created to undertake a vast range of projects during the great depression; was very popular and the hope of a government job helped check the threat of social revolution in the US
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What was the Swedish response to the Depression?
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Cooperative social action: Sweden pioneered in the use of large-scale deficits to finance public works and thereby maintain production and employment; increased social welfare benefits
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What did the Swedish need to fund its cooperative social action?
answer

a large bureaucracy and high taxes
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How was the severity of the Great Depression in Britain opposed to the US?
answer

The years after 1932 were actually somewhat better than the 1920s had been better than the 1920s had been while in the US, it was opposite
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What were the causes of mass culture?
answer

-Highly industrialized manufacturing system dedicated to mass-producing inexpensive goods -efficient transportation systems that could bring these goods to national markets -the rise of professional advertising experts and agencies
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What was Britain saying when they went off the gold standard? What was the outcome?
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They were refusing to convert banknotes into gold and reduced the value of their money. Outcome: Britain didn’t make an advantage in trying to manage the crisis of the output of goods
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Why was the Great Depression slow to hit France?
answer

France was less industrialized and more isolated from the world economy
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What happened once the Great Depression hit France?
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It stayed; decline was steady, and a short-lived recovery never brought production or employment back up to pre-depression leves
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What effect did the emergence of professional advertising have?
answer

It changed the way goods were made, marketed, and used by ordinary people
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What were some of the practices of countries during WWI that were adopted by Totalitarian regimes?
answer

-no individual rights were protected -individual lives seemed less important than the good of the entire nation -disregard for human life and greatly expanded power of the state pursued social control
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What were the differences between Stalin and Trotsky?
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Stalin was a good organizer, but a poor speaker and had little experience outside of Russia while Trotsky was a great and inspiring, victorious leader
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Why did Stalin win over Trotsky?
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Stalin was more effective at gaining the all-important support of the party and related Marxian teachings to Soviet realities better than Trotsky did in the 1920s
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What did Mussolini do to get kicked out of Italian socialist party? What did he do afterwards?
answer

He urged Italy to join the Allies. After: Started trashing talking the party, gaining conservative support and then decided to turn anti-socialist to gain power and popularity
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Who were Kulaks?
answer

the better-off peasants who were stripped of land and livestock under Stalin and were generally not permitted to join collective farms
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What did Stalin do to the Kulaks?
answer

ordered for their liquidation and seizure of their land since they were held as a great enemy of progress
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What effect did Stalin’s have on the Kulaks?
answer

Many were stripped of land and livestock, and starved or were deported to forced-labor camps
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What was the turning point on the Eastern Front of WWII?
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Hitler decided to attack the Soviet Union and he was winning on the eastern front until a severe winter struck the German armies dressed in summer uniforms – stalled them
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What was the German response to the Great Depression?
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-Nazi policies of national rebirth appealed to people; -people were seized by panic as bankruptcies increased and unemployment soared -the communists made dramatic gain -People deserted conservative and moderate parties for the Nazis
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Who was Sergei Kirov?
answer

Stalin’s #2 man and was mysteriously murdered most likely by the orders of Stalin
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Who did Stalin blame for Sergei Kirov’s death? How did he use it for is advantage?
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he blamed fascist agents within the Communist Party and then used this incident to launch a reign of terror that purged the party of \”traitors\” and solidified his own control
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How did Mussolini gain support from big business men in Italy?
answer

gains support by not interfering in regulation of business
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What was the Lateran Agreement?
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A 1929 agreement that recognized the Vatican as an independent state with Mussolini agreeing to give the church heavy financial support in return for public support from the pope
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Fascist leaders based their ruling on?
answer

nationalism to connect the country high military power outlawed contradicting orders and political powers against them
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Who were Fascist leaders?
answer

Mussolini, Stalin, and Hitler
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Fascism is based on what?
answer

Militarism, nationalism, led by one leader and one party, glorified war, exercised control over media, supported state-sponsored capitalism, and condemned democracy
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What was Hitler’s book called?
answer

Mein Kampf translated to My Struggle

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