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AP Euro Chapter 17 Multiple Choice

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Which powers participated in the partitioning of Poland in the late eighteenth century?
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Prussia, Russia, and Austria
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The discipline of natural philosophy focused on
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fundamental questions about the nature, purpose, and function of the universe.
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The scientific revolution drew on all of the following for its origins except
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efforts to prevent a recurrence of the Black Death.
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What was the primary goal of Galileo’s experimental method?
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To discover what did occur in nature rather than to speculate on what should occur
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How did Isaac Newton’s law of gravity bring the Scientific Revolution to maturity?
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Newton synthesized mathematics with physics and astronomy to demonstrate that the entire universe was unified into one coherent system.
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Soft pastels, ornate interiors, and sentimental portraits are all characteristics of the style known as
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rococo.
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Copernicus’s theory of the universe
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postulated a sun-centered view of the universe.
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The most influential aspect of RenĂ© Descartes’ theories of nature was that
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the universe functioned in a mechanistic fashion.
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Francis Bacon formalized the research methods of Tycho Brahe and Galileo into a theory of reasoning known as
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empiricism
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How did the governments respond to the new science?
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States established academies of science to support and sometimes direct scientific research.
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All of the following correctly characterize the role of women in the new science except
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women were forbidden from publishing learned treatises.
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How did the scientific revolution affect the economy in the seventeenth century?
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The new science had few practical economic applications.
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Why did scientists find that Protestant countries were more conducive to their work, especially after 1640?
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Protestant countries generally lacked a strong religious authority capable of censoring or suppressing scientific work that challenged religious doctrine.
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In his Essay Concerning Human Understanding, John Locke claimed that
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human development is determined by education and society.
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The concept of the reading revolution refers to the
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shift from reading aloud texts perceived as authoritative to reading many different texts rapidly, silently, and individually.
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What core concept of the Enlightenment was the most important and original?
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The methods of natural science should be used to examine all aspects of life.
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In general, what was Voltaire’s attitude toward government?
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He believed that a good monarch was the best one could hope for
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Madame du Châtelet
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believed that women’s limited contribution to science was the result of unequal education.
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Rousseau’s concept of the general will asserts that
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. the authentic, long-term needs of the people can be correctly interpreted by a far-seeing minority.
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A striking feature of the salons was that
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philosophes, nobles, and members of the upper middle class intermingled.
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In Historical and Critical Dictionary, Pierre Bayle demonstrated that
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all knowledge can be questioned and doubted.
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The Enlightenment reached its highest development in France for all of the following reasons except
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France had the highest literacy rates in Europe.
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The idea of the public sphere that emerged during the Enlightenment refers to
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an idealized space where individuals gathered to discuss social and political issues.
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The enlightened policies of Frederick II of Prussia included all of the following except
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freeing the Prussian serfs.
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How did the idea of \”race\” transform Europeans’ idea of their superiority over other peoples?
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European superiority increasingly was defined as biologically superior as well as culturally superior.
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To improve the rural economy and the lives of peasants, Empress Maria Theresa
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reduced nobles’ power over their serfs.
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Joseph II’s conversion of labor obligations to cash payments
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was opposed by both nobles and peasants.