AP Eng Writing McNeal

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3 Principal Parts of Writing
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1) Planning 2) Drafting 3) Revision
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Selecting a topic
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Keep in mind the assignment, purpose/subject, audience, personal interest, and available resources
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rhetorical modes
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definition, causal analysis, descriptive, narrative, argument, controversy, persuasion
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Keep in mind the audience’s…
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biases and prejudices, likes and dislikes, attitudes, special interests, and level of knowledge
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thesis
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the point you intend to make in your essay; should be in paragraph one and should include a hint of the essay’s organization
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tone
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your apparent attitude toward your subject
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use of data
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credibility or believability of your sources, age of your material, and its direct application to your thesis
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process
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anything with steps
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planning steps
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-choose and limit a topic (scope) -gather data (something to say) -analyze audience -state purpose -create a working thesis -evaluate and organize EVIDENCE
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statement of purpose
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-must never appear in an essay (i.e., \”I will prove that….\”) -helps clarify in our own minds what we want to accomplish – answers the question, \”what is the lesson?\”
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drafting
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when you say what you’re going to say, and put in on paper as QUICKLY and SPONTANEOUSLY as possible
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revision
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making the paper better by checking for thoroughness, style, and mechanics, and making certain the paper is clear and appropriate for the intended audience.
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topic sentence
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-OPENS a topic that can be further developed -LIMITS the scope of the paragraph -SETS the tone of the writer toward the subject
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what a paragraph should include
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-a good topic sentence -adequate, specific EVIDENCE -a reason to read the paragraph -a good conclusion or transition
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diction
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word choice
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syntax
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sentence structure
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empirical evidence
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-incidents and anecdotes related to topic (from the text) -specific examples from the text -credible observations
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divide and conquer
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determine the points that the audience will need clarified to accept your theme as valid
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theme
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lesson about life and/or human nature that can be derived from literature or the subject of discussion
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types of analysis
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-thematic -reader response -character analysis
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beginning devices
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-explain the larger context of your topic -state your thesis -offer background information -define key terms or concepts -connect your topic to reader’s interests or values -start with something that will provoke a reader response -start with an anecdote -ask a question
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ending devices
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-restate your main point in other words -discuss the implications (significance) for your argument. (tailored to a specific audience) -end with an anecdote that illustrates your main point -refer to the beginning -propose some specific course of action
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4 T’s
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titles (suggest content) thesis (directly states your opinion and the idea the essay is built around) topic sentence (what the point is) transition
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essay requirements
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-discernible purpose -execution of purpose -credibility of research-proven evidence, reasoning (logic) -presentation- neatness -clarity- diction, syntax, coherence, and structure

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