A&P chapters 1&2

The belief that natural processes were caused by forces that could be understood dates back about
2,500 years
An investigator who conducts an experiment to determine how the rate at which the heart beats is affected by temperature changes is most likely to be a(n)
Physiologist
The ability of an organism to sense changes that take place within its body is an example of
Responsiveness
Which of the following processes is not concerned with maintaining the life of an adult organism?
A. Responsiveness
B. Movement
C. Reproduction
D. Metabolism
C. Reproduction
Physical and chemical changes or reactions that occur within the body are collectively known as
Metabolism
Increasing levels of complexity
Organelles, cells, tissues, organs, systems
Of the items listed, which is not required for the maintenance of life?
A. Water
B. Food
C. Carbon dioxide
D. Pressure
C. Carbon dioxide
Homeostasis is
The tendency of the body to maintain a stable environment
How is oxygen used by living organisms?
It Is used to release energy that is stored in food
Which of the following organs is located in the abdominopelvic cavity?
A. Heart
B. Trachea
C. Thymus gland
D. Kidney
D. Kidney
The membrane on the surface of a lung is called the
Visceral pleura
Function of the muscular system
Production of body heat
Separates the body into right and left portions
Sagittal
The upper mid portion of the abdomen is called the
Epigastric region
The thoracic cavity lies where in relationship to the abdominopelvic cavity?
Superior
What organ system is responsible for the production of blood cells
Skeletal system
Anatomical position
Face forward
Arms at sides
Body is erect
A mechanism functioning to maintain a stable internal environment is most likely to involve
Negative feedback
A blood clot simulating the formation of more blood clotting is an example of
Positive feedback
Ultrasonography is most useful for examining
Medium density organs, such as the heart.
Magnetic resonance imaging makes use of
Radio antennae
Magnetic resonance imaging might be used to
Distinguish between normal and cancerous tissue
Assess damage sustained by the heart
Obtain a sectional view of the brain
The activities of an Anatomist consist of
Observing Body parts
The activities of a physiologist consist of
Studying functions of body parts
Characteristics of life
Assimilation
Responsiveness
Respiration
Circulation
Metabolism is defined as the
Physical and chemical changes occurring in an organism
Homeostasis is a condition whereby body parts function efficiently only when the contractions of water, food substances, and oxygen, and the conditions of heat and pressure
Remain within certain limited ranges
Homeostatic mechanisms are said to act by negative feedback because changes away from the normal state
Stimulate changes to occur in the opposite direction
A parietal membrane
Lines cavities
A visceral membrane
Covers organs
The term anatomy comes from the Greek meaning
A cutting up
The term physiology comes from the Greek meaning
Relationship to nature
_____ are composed of even smaller subatomic particles
Atoms
The most ancient and abundant unicellular organisms are
Bacteria
Positive feedback mechanisms
Move conditions away from the normal state
Positive feedback mechanisms usually produce
Unstable conditions
Chemistry deals with
Composition of substances
Changes that occur in substances
Substances that make up organisms
Which of the following substances is an element
a. Iron
B. Water
C. Salt
D. Glucose
A. Iron
Substances that comprise over 95% of the human body
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
The atoms of two kinds of elements are likely to have
Different sizes and different weights
The atoms of the isotopes of a particular element vary in the number of
Neutrons
The first shell of an atom can hold a Maximum of
2 electrons
If an atom has 3 electrons in its second shell and its first shell is filled, it will tend to
Lose 3 electrons from its second shell
A decomposition reaction can be symbolized by
AB–> A+B
A solution that contains equal numbers of hydrogen and hydroxyl ions would be called
Neutral
The difference in hydrogen ion concentration between solutions with pH 4 and pH 5 is
Tenfold
A chemical reaction in which pairs of two different molecules trade positions with one another is a(n)
Exchange reaction
The unique, three dimensional structure of a protein molecule is maintained largely by
Hydrogen bonds
Electrolytes are substances that
Ionize when dissolved in water
The pH scale measures the
Concentration of hydrogen ions in solution
Which of the following is the most abundant inorganic structure in cells?
A. Carbohydrate
B. Water
C. Lipid
D. Protein
B. Water
Which of the following isotopes has the longest life?
A. Iodine-131
B. Iron-59
C. Phosphorus-32
D. Radium-226
D. Radium-226
Electrolytes that release hydrogen ions in water are called
Acids
The isotope most likely to be used to study the thyroid gland is
Iodine-141
Atomic radiation is useful for treating cancer because
Radiation protects normal cells against the effects of cancer
Which of the following is a form of ionizing radiation?
A. Cosmic radiation
B. Gamma radiation
C. Cosmic radiation and gamma radiation
C. Cosmic radiation and gamma radiation
Exposure to ionizing radiation may cause
Clouding of the lens of the eye
Formation of cancer
Interference with normal development
A person has alkalosis if the blood pH
Rises above 7.4
The four most abundant elements in the human body are
O, C, H, and N
Matter is composed of
Elements
Elements themselves are composed of
Atoms
A complete atom is electrically neutral because the number of
Negative electrons and positive protons are equal
Atomic number is equal to the number of
Protons
Atomic weight is equal to the
Number of protons plus neutrons
Synthesis reactions are particularly important in the body for
Growth of body parts
A covalent bond is characterized by
Atoms sharing pairs of electrons
The pH scale can be described as a scale in which
A tenfold difference in the hydrogen ion concentration occurs between each whole number on the scale
The lower the whole number on the scale, the greater the H+ concentration
pH values above 7 are basic
Organic substances are distinguished by molecules that
Contain carbon
Inorganic substances are distinguished by molecules that
Do not contain carbon
The role played by oxygen in the body is to
Be used in the release of energy from glucose during respiration
Characteristics of carbohydrates
They contain C, H, and O, with twice as many hydrogen as oxygen atoms
They provide much of the energy that the cell needs
They often are stored as reserve energy supplies
A simple carbohydrate is characterized by
Having a molecular formula of C6H12O6
Lipids are characterized by
A group of substances that are insoluble in water
A number of compounds such as phospholipids, cholesterol, and fats
Fat molecules containing C, H, and O, but the proportion of oxygen is much smaller than in carbohydrates
A protein can be denatured when
Weak hydrogen bonds are broken
Saturated fats are distinguished by
All carbon atoms being joined with single carbon-carbon bonds
Unsaturated fats are distinguished by
One or more double bonds occurring between carbon atoms
General characteristics of a protein
Serve as structural materials, energy sources, and chemical messengers
Contain C, H, O, and N and sometimes sulfur
Can act as enzymes
An enzyme is defined as
A protein that speeds up chemical reactions without being changed or depleted
Examples of conditions in the body that cause denaturation are
Excessive heat, radiation, electricity, or various chemicals
A general function of nucleic acids is that
DNA stores genetic information
A general characteristic of nucleic acids is that they are
Composed of building blocks called nucleotides
The element iodide is used by the
Thyroid
Sodium ions and calcium ions are examples of
Cations
When cations and anions meet
They form a 3D structure
Table sugar breaking down into glucose and fructose is an example of
A decomposition reaction
An acid reacting with a base is an example of
An exchange reaction
Water causes substances formed with ionic bonds to
Dissociate
When bases react with acids ____ and water are formed
Electrolytes
An organic compound contains both
Carbon and hydrogen
Carbon is unique because
It can form 4 covalent bonds
Which of these is not considered a monosaccharide?
A. Ribose
B. 5-carbon sugar
C. 6-carbon sugar
D. Glycogen
D. Glycogen
Glycogen is stored in the liver and
Skeletal muscles
Which of the following is not true of the least healthy fats or transfats
A. They emulsify easily
B. they cause heart disease
C. They are harder to break down
D. They contain a high number of introduced double bonds
A. They emulsify easily
Chemical motifs are composed of
Localized shapes
Which of the following compounds is not hydrophilic?
A. Carbohydrates
B. Lipids
C. Proteins
D. Nucleic acids
A. Carbohydrates
Which of the following molecules lacks a polar region?
A. Water
B. Triglycerides
C. Tryptophan
D. Glucose
B. Triglycerides