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AP Ch10 quiz Essay

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A pair of tweezers is a good example of a second-class lever.
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FALSE
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Both first- and second-class levers operate at a mechanical disadvantage.
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FALSE
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Although all skeletal muscles have different shapes, the fascicle arrangement of each muscle is exactly the same.
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FALSE
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Muscles are only able to pull, they never push.
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TRUE
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Regardless of type, all levers follow the same basic principle: effort farther than load from fulcrum = mechanical advantage; effort nearer than load to fulcrum = mechanical disadvantage.
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TRUE
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Movements of the thigh are accomplished by muscles anchored to the pelvic girdle.
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TRUE
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The biceps brachii inserts on the radius.
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TRUE
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The chewing muscle covering the ramus of the mandible is the buccinator.
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FALSE
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The deltoid is a prime mover of the arm that acts in adduction.
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FALSE
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The soleus is a synergist of the gastrocnemius during plantar flexion.
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TRUE
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Muscles that help to maintain posture are often called synergists.
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FALSE
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In order to propel food down to the esophagus, the pharyngeal constrictor muscles are used.
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TRUE
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Plantar flexion at the ankle joint is accomplished by the tibialis anterior muscle.
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FALSE
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The arrangement of a muscle’s fascicles determines its range of motion and power.
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TRUE
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Muscle power does not depend on the direction of the fascicles.
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TRUE
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The calcaneal tendon (Achilles tendon) is the largest, strongest tendon in the body.
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TRUE
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The epicranius or occipitofrontalis has two bellies, the frontal and occipital.
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TRUE
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Electromyography is the recording and interpretation of graphic records of the electrical activity of contracting muscles.
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TRUE
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Severing of the patellar tendon would inactivate the hamstring group.
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FALSE
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The broadest muscle of the back is the latissimus dorsi.
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TRUE
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Muscle spasms of the back often are due to the erector spinae contraction.
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TRUE
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Muscles connecting to the hyoid bone are important for swallowing and speech.
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TRUE
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The muscles of facial expression insert into skin or other muscles, not bones.
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TRUE
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15) Which type of lever is demonstrated by using scissors? A) a first-class lever B) a second-class lever C) a third-class lever D) a fourth-class lever
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A) a first-class lever
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16) What muscle is responsible for keeping your toes from dragging when walking? A) extensor digitorum B) tibialis anterior C) extensor hallucis longus D) fibularis tertius
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D) fibularis tertius
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31.) What is the major factor controlling how levers work? A) the structural characteristics of the muscles of the person using the lever B) the weight of the load C) the direction the load is being moved D) the difference in the positioning of the effort, load, and fulcrum
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D) the difference in the positioning of the effort, load, and fulcrum
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17) Which of the following describes fascicle arrangement in a pennate muscle? A) The fascicles are short and attach obliquely to a central tendon that runs the length of a muscle. B) The fascicular pattern is circular. C) The fascicles form a triangle. D) The fascicles are in a fusiform arrangement.
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A) The fascicles are short and attach obliquely to a central tendon that runs the length of a muscle.
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32) What is the main factor that determines the power of a muscle? A) the length B) the shape C) the number of neurons innervating it D) the total number of muscle cells available for contraction
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D) the total number of muscle cells available for contraction
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33) What is a muscle that provides the major force for producing a specific movement called? A) a synergist B) an agonist C) an antagonist D) a fixator
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B) an agonist
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18) When the term biceps, triceps, or quadriceps forms part of a muscle’s name, what does it tell you about the muscle? A) The muscle has two, three, or four origins, respectively. B) The muscle is able to change direction twice, three times, or four times faster than other muscles, respectively. C) The muscle has two, three, or four functions, respectively. D) The muscle has two, three, or four insertions, respectively.
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A) The muscle has two, three, or four origins, respectively.
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34) Which of the following statements is true regarding the total number of skeletal muscles in the human body? A) There are approximately the same number of muscles as bones: 206. B) There are approximately 350 muscles in the body. C) There are over 600 muscles in the body. D) If one considers the very tiny, insignificant muscles, there are over 1000 muscles in the body.
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C) There are over 600 muscles in the body.
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35) The names of muscles often indicate the action of the muscle. What does the term levator mean? A) The muscle flexes and rotates a region. B) The muscle is a fixator and stabilizes a bone or joint. C) The muscle elevates and/or adducts a region. D) The muscle functions as a synergist.
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C) The muscle elevates and/or adducts a region.
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19) Which of the following describes the suprahyoid muscles? A) They depress the larynx and hyoid bone if the mandible is fixed. B) They are a group of muscles that lie superior to the hyoid bone and help form the floor of the oral cavity. C) They move the pharynx superiorly during swallowing. D) They are often called strap muscles.
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B) They are a group of muscles that lie superior to the hyoid bone and help form the floor of the oral cavity.
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36) The supraspinatus is named for its location on the posterior aspect of the scapula above the spine. What is its action? A) to help hold the head of the humerus in the glenoid cavity and rotate the humerus laterally B) to stabilize the shoulder joint and help prevent downward location of the humerus and to assist in abduction C) to extend and medially rotate the humerus and to act as a synergist of the latissimus dorsi D) to flex and adduct the humerus and to act as a synergist of the pectoralis major
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B) to stabilize the shoulder joint and help prevent downward location of the humerus and to assist in abduction
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37) The extensor carpi radialis brevis ________. A) extends and abducts the wrist and is short B) extends and adducts the wrist and has a small tendon C) supinates the forearm and is a superficial muscle D) extends the thumb and is a deep muscle
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A) extends and abducts the wrist and is short
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20) What are the muscles that are found at openings of the body collectively called? A) convergent muscles B) circular muscles C) parallel muscles D) divergent muscles
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B) circular muscles
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38) Which of the following muscles is involved in producing horizontal wrinkles in the forehead? A) the medial pterygoid B) the zygomaticus major C) the frontal belly of the epicranius D) the temporalis
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C) the frontal belly of the epicranius
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39) A cute, little curly-haired child is sitting behind you in church. You turn around for a moment and she sticks her tongue out at you. Which tongue muscle did she use? A) orbicularis oris B) stylohyoid C) hyoglossus D) genioglossus
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D) genioglossus
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21) Which group of muscles flexes and rotates the neck? A) the scalenes B) the iliocostalis C) the spinalis D) the splenius
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A) the scalenes
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40) Which of the following muscles is involved in crossing one leg over the other while in a sitting position? A) the gastrocnemius B) the sartorius C) all of the hamstrings D) the quadriceps femoris
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B) the sartorius
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41) Which of the following muscles inserts by the calcaneal tendon? A) the semitendinosus B) the sartorius C) the tibialis anterior D) the gastrocnemius
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D) the gastrocnemius
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22) If a lever operates at a mechanical disadvantage, it means that the ________. A) load is far from the fulcrum and the effort is applied near the fulcrum B) lever system is useless C) effort is farther than the load from the fulcrum D) load is near the fulcrum and the effort is at the distal end
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A) load is far from the fulcrum and the effort is applied near the fulcrum
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42) Which of the following does not compress the abdomen? A) internal oblique B) external oblique C) transversus abdominis D) coccygeus
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D) coccygeus
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43) A muscle group that works with and assists the action of a prime mover is a(n) ________. A) antagonist B) fixator C) synergist D) protagonist
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C) synergist
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23) What type of muscle assists an agonist by causing a like movement or by stabilizing a joint over which an agonist acts? A) an antagonist B) a prime mover C) a synergist D) an agonist
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C) a synergist
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44) Which of the following is not a member of the hamstrings? A) gracilis B) semitendinosus C) semimembranosus D) biceps femoris
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A) gracilis
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A nursing infant develops a powerful sucking muscle that adults also use for whistling. What is this muscle called? A) platysma B) masseter C) zygomaticus D) buccinator
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D) buccinator
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24) Spasms of this straplike muscle often result in wryneck or torticollis. A) serratus anterior B) zygomaticus C) platysma D) sternocleidomastoid
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D) sternocleidomastoid
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45) Which generalization concerning movement by skeletal muscles is not true? A) Muscles produce movement by pulling on bones. B) The bones serve as levers. C) During contraction the two articulating bones move equally. D) The movements produced may be of graded intensity.
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C) During contraction the two articulating bones move equally.
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Which of these is not a way of classifying muscles? A) muscle location B) the type of muscle fibers C) the type of action they cause D) muscle shape
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B) the type of muscle fibers
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25) Which of the choices below is the major muscle for breathing? A) diaphragm B) rectus abdominis C) latissimus dorsi D) temporalis
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A) diaphragm
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46) Which of the following best describes the orbicularis oris?. A) It closes, purses, and protrudes the lips. B) It pulls the lower lip down and back. C) It draws the eyebrows together. D) It allows blinking, squinting, and various other protective mechanisms for the eye.
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A) It closes, purses, and protrudes the lips.
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In a pennate muscle pattern ________. A) muscles appear to be straplike B) there is a narrow origin diverging to a broad insertion C) there is a broad origin and fascicles converge toward a single tendon D) muscles look like a feather
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D) muscles look like a feather
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26) What are the levers that operate at a mechanical advantage called? A) speed levers B) power levers C) functional levers D) dysfunctional levers
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C) functional levers
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47) Tennis players often complain about pain in the arm (forearm) that swings the racquet. What muscle is usually strained under these conditions? A) the triceps brachii B) the anconeus C) the brachioradialis D) the flexor digitorum profundus
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C) the brachioradialis
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Which muscles is (are) contracted to exhale forcibly? A) diaphragm alone B) internal intercostals and rectus abdominus C) external intercostals and diaphragm D) rectus abdominis and diaphragm
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B) internal intercostals and rectus abdominus
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27) Paralysis of which of the following would make an individual unable to flex the thigh? A) biceps B) vastus medialis C) soleus D) iliopsoas and rectus femoris
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D) iliopsoas and rectus femoris
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48) First-class levers ________. A) have load at one end of the lever, fulcrum at the other, and effort applied somewhere in the middle B) are typified by tweezers or forceps C) in the body can operate at a mechanical advantage or mechanical disadvantage, depending on specific location D) are the type found in the joints forming the ball of the foot as used in raising the body on the toes
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C) in the body can operate at a mechanical advantage or mechanical disadvantage, depending on specific location
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What do the geniohyoid, hyoglossus, and stylohyoid muscles have in common? A) All names reflect direction of muscle fibers. B) Each acts synergistically to elevate the jaw. C) All act on the tongue. D) All names indicate the relative size of the muscle.
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C) All act on the tongue.
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28) Adductor magnus, adductor longus, and adductor brevis are parts of a large muscle mass of the ________. A) lateral rotators B) anterior compartment of the thigh C) posterior muscle group of the thigh D) medial compartment of the thigh
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D) medial compartment of the thigh
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49) If L = load, F = fulcrum, and E = effort, what type of lever system is described as LEF? A) first-class lever B) second-class lever C) third-class lever D) fourth-class lever
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C) third-class lever
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Which of the following muscles is a flexor of the thigh? A) tibialis posterior B) vastus lateralis C) adductor magnus D) gluteus maximus
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C) adductor magnus
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29) Which of the following muscles is involved in inversion at the ankle joint? A) tibialis anterior B) extensor digitorum longus C) peroneus tertius D) peroneus longus
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A) tibialis anterior
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50) Which of the following muscles serves as a common intramuscular injection site, particularly in infants? A) the vastus intermedius B) the vastus medialis C) rectus femoris D) the vastus lateralis
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D) the vastus lateralis
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Paralysis of which of the following muscles would make an individual unable to flex the knee? A) hamstring muscles B) gluteal muscles C) brachioradialis D) soleus
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A) hamstring muscles
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30) Which of the following muscles does not act in plantar flexion? A) popliteus B) tibialis posterior C) flexor digitorum longus D) gastrocnemius and soleus
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A) popliteus
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________ is a powerful forearm extensor.
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Triceps brachii
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The ________ is known as the boxer muscle.
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serratus anterior
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The ________ runs deep to the external oblique.
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internal oblique
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The ________ helps keep food between the grinding surfaces of the teeth during chewing.
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buccinator
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The ________ draws the corners of the mouth downward as in expressing horror.
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platysma
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The ________ is the main chewing muscle.
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masseter