AP Biology Reading Guide Chapter 5

The large molecules of all living things fall into just four main classes. Name them
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids

Which of the four main classes are macromolecules
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins

Macromolecules
a molecule containing a lot of molecules

plymer
long molecule of identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds made up of smaller ones

monomer
the repeating unites the serve as the building blocks of polymers

Monomers are connected in what type of reactions? What occurs in this reaction?
a reaction of two molecules through the loss of water. Condensation / Dehydration reaction. One gives OH- and the other -H

Large molecules (polymers) are converted to monomers in what type of reaction?
hydrolysis

Hydro
water

Lysis
break

When two monomers are joined, a molecule of _______ is always removed
water H2O

is glucose a monomer or polymer
polymer

What are the monomers of all carbohydrates?
monosaccharides glucose, fructose, galactose

C=O
altose

–OH
ketose

What is the difference between aldehyde sugar and ketone sugar?
Aldehyde sugars have a hydrogen atom attatched to the carbon oxygen double bond. whereas ketone sugars do not.

Compounds that have the some molecular formulas but have different structural formulas
enantiomers

The disaccharide sucrose is formed from which two monosaccharides? Where is it found?
Glucose and Fructose. Plants

Maltose is formed from which two monosaccharides? Where is it found?
Glucose and Glucose. Alcohol

Lactose is formed from which two monsaccharides? Where is it found?
Glucose and Galactose. Dairy

The root ose means
full of

What is a glycosidic linkage
a covalent bond formed between 2 monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction

What are the two categories of polysaccharides? Give an example of both
Storage (starch, glycogen)(helical). Structural (cellulose, chitin)(distinct shape)

Why can you not digest cellulose? What animal can?
Cows. Cows have a fungi within their stomachs that allows them to digest cellulose

Has 1-4 B glucose linkages
starch

is a storage polysaccharide produced by vertebrates;stored in your liver
glycogen

two monomers of this form maltose
glucose

glucose and _____ form sucrose
frucose

monosaccharide commonly called “fruit sugar”
fructose

milk sugar
lactose

structural polysaccharide that gives cockroaches their crunch
chitin

malt sugar, used to brew beer
maltose

structural polysaccharide that comprises plant cell walls
cellulose

Lipids include fats, waxes, oils, phospholipids, and steroids,What characteristic do all lipids share?
They are all non polar

What are the building blocks of fats?
glycerol and fatty acids

Name two saturated fats
palmatic acid, lard, butter

Name two unsaturated fats
olive oil, fish oil

Why are many unsaturated fats liquid at room temperature?
the double or triple bonds preventt solidification

What is trans fat? Why should you limit them in your diet?
hydrogenation of an unsaturated fat. it leads to cardiovascular disease

list four important functions of fats
energy storage, heat, cushions vital organs, more efficient energy

Why is the “tail” hydrophobic?
hydrocarbons

Why are the tails on the inside
because they dont like water

Function and Example of Enzymatic protein
acceleration of chemical reactions. digestive enzymes

Function and Example of Structural Proteins
support. collagen, keratin (hair)

Function and Example of Storage Proteins
amino acid storage. casein

Function and Example of Transport Proteins
transportation. hemoglobin

Function and Example of Contractile Proteins
movement actin, myosin (contraction of muscles)

Dipeptide
a peptide of two amino acids and residues

Polypeptide
polymers of amino acids

when two amino acids are positioned so that they carboxyl group of one is adjacent to the amino group of the other. They become joined by a dehydration reaction.
Peptide Bond

Explain the Primary Level of a Protein Structure
the unique sequence of amino acids. determined by DNA. example: transthyretin

Explain the Secondary (II) Level of a Protein Structure
Polypeptide chains repeatedly coiled or folded into patterns that contribute to the proteins overall shape. example: Alpha helix Alpha keratin

Explain the Tertiary Level (III) of a Protein Structure
the overall shape of a polypeptide. example: hydrophobic interaction

Explain the Quaternary (IV) Level of a Protein Structure
The overall protein structure resulting from the oxygenation of the polypeptide. example: collagen

What is the flow of genetic information from DNA to Protein
1. synthesis of mRNA in the nucleus. 2. movement of mRNA into cytoplasm via nuclear pore. 3. synthesis of protein.

Denaturation
When a protein unravels and loses its native shape

How does denaturation happen
transfer from (aq) to organic solvent. chemicals that disrupt H bonds. excessive heat.

What are the nitrogen bases found in DNA
cytosine (c), thymine (t), adenine (a), guanine (g)

What are the four found in RNA?
cytosine, thymine, uracil, guanine

How doe ribose and deoxyribose suguars differ?
The second carbon is bonded with an H on deoxyribose and an OH in ribose

What are the three components of a nucleotide?
nitrogenous base, five carbon sugar, phosphate group

What two molecules make up the uprights?
deoxyribose, phosphates

What molecules make up the rungs?
adenine-thymine
cytosine-guanine