AP Art History Terms 2

Flashcard maker : Charlotte Small
Cycladic
Refers to the civilization on the islands of the Cyclades
Cyclopean masonry
Stone work constructed with oversized, undressed stones
cylinder seal
A carved cylindrical object that creates a raised image when rolled over a surface of clay
Dacians
A \”barbarian\” people living in what is now Romania during the period of the Roman empire
Dada
An art movement first emerging in Zurich in 1916 that rejected bourgeois culture and traditional artistic expression in favor of an art characterized by chance, feeling, freedom, indeterminate meaning, and a breaking down of the barriers between art and life
dado
The lower part of a wall, differentiated in some way from the upper section, often with a molding
daguerreotype
An early photographic process in which images were made on silver plates coated with a light-sensitive layer of silver iodide
damnatio memoriae
Literally, \”damnation of memory;\” the ritual destruction of an image or other artifact to erase the memory of an individual who has fallen out of favor for political reasons
Daoism
Dao means way or path. Spiritual attainment rather than a material achievement
Dark Ages
A now defunct name for the Middle Ages or Medieval Period, ca. 500 to 1400 CE
De Stijl
Dutch, \”the style\”; an art movement that emerged in the Netherlands around 1917 that sought to express the universe through abstraction
decursio
Ritual circling of a Roman funerary pile
Deesis
Enthroned Christ flanked by the Virgin Mary and St. John the Baptist, and sometimes by other saints
deposition
Christ’s removal from the cross
depth
Real space or illusionistic space that relates to a surface and can be expressed horizontally or vertically
ding
Bronze ceremonial container for holding or cooking food, typically raised on three or four legs
Dionysian
Having to do with the Greek god of wine and revelry
diptych
An object consisting of two doors hinged together, like a book, used to hold wax for writing
Diquís
Mesoamerican civilization that enjoyed its most productive period from 500-1500 CE
disegno
Emphasis on line drawing as the foundation of artistic design
divine deliverance
Rescue, or deliverance, from an undesirable situation by the hand of God
domino construction method
Associated with Le Corbusier in which concrete reinforced by steel is supported by freestanding steel posts just at the points where the dots of a domino would be located and used as the building block for further construction
donor portrait
A representation of the patron of an artwork in the work itself, often smaller in scale and on the margins of the composition
dressed stone
Stone that has been cut to a desired shape, and the sides that will be exposed to view have been smoothed
dromos
Entryway to a tholos tomb
drum
The vertical circular wall supporting a dome
drypoint
A type of intaglio print; the artist scratches directly into a copper plate with a sharp needle. Process can be used alone or to strengthen details on an etched plate
dyer
A person who dyes cloth
dynasty
A succession of rulers of the same family or line
Early English Gothic
Late 12th century. Its characteristics include screening facades, lancet windows, and width rather than sheer verticality
earspools
Personal ornament inserted in stretched space of pierced earlobe
earthwork
A work of art constructed from a portion of modified land
echinus
The convex part of a Doric capital, just below the abacus
Edict of Milan
A proclamation issued jointly by the rulers Constantine and Licinius in 313 CE that made Christianity a tolerated religion
Edo
Period in Japanese history from 1603 to 1868 when imperial authority was restored
effigy
An anthropomorphic or zoomorphic form represented in a vessel. Like figurines, they are usually made from clay, wood, or stone
en plein air
French phrase for painting in the open air, outdoors
encaustic
A painting technique in which pigments are mixed with hot wax
engaged columns
Half-round columns built against a wall for support
engraving
The process of cutting a metal surface to produce decoration
Enlightenment
A philosophical movement of the 18th century marked by the reevaluation of social, political, and religious authority and beliefs, and emphasizing reasons
entablature
The part of a building between the columns and the roof, which functions as a lintel. In a Classical Greek temple, the entablature has three parts: the architrave or epistyle, the frieze, and the pediment
Environmental art
A style of sculptural art originated in the 1960s that uses earth, rock, and other organic material to altar the landscape.
epic
A long narrative poem recounting the deeds of a hero
equinox
Time in spring and fall when periods of daylight and dark are exactly equal
etching
A type of intaglio print; metal (usually copper) plate is covered with an acid-resistant coating and a design is scratched through the coating.
Eucharist
The symbolic consumption of bread or wafers that are blessed to represent the body of Christ
evangelist portraits
Portraits of the authors of the four gospels: Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John
exedra
Recessed area
Existentialism
A philosophy prevalent in the early 20th century that asserted the aloneness of the individual in an indifferent universe and the necessity for the individual to act without the certainty of moral knowledge
Expressionism
A mostly Germanic style of the early 20th century that is a visual projection of intense inner feelings rather than outer appearances
expressionism
A style of representation in which forms are created to evoke or express emotions.
Eyckian
Working in the style of Jan van Eyck. It is a style noted for realism, with attention down to the minutest detail; rich color, including vista landscapes; and arranged compositions, embedded with strong symbolism
eye paint
Common egyptian cosmetic. Pigments were ground on a palette with water or gum to make a paste and applied with a rounded applicator made from wood, bronze, glass, or other material. During the New Kingdom it was mainly black \”kohl.\”
façade
Front or principal elevation of a building
fasces
A bundle of rods bound with an ax in the middle and its blade projecting; originally used by lictors before the superior magistrates at Rome as an emblem of their power, it later became a standard feature of Neoclassical ornament.
Fauvism
A painting style developed by Henri Matisse in 1905 that formally lasted until 1908. The means \”fierce animal.\” The style rejects Neo-Impressionism and expresses flat, bold, un-naturalistic color with impulsive brushwork; sometimes the blank canvas shows between brushstrokes.
femmage
A term coined by Miriam Schapiro meaning \”feminine collage.\”
fenestration
The patterns of windows evident in a building
fête galante
An outdoor entertainment for the French nobility; a genre of painting
fibula
A clasp or pin
figure serpentina
The spiraling serpentine line that structures the composition of many Mannerist works of art
figural representation
The artistic representation of a body, especially a human body
figurative
Artwork representing the forms of humans or animals rather than ideas or patterns
fillet
The flat ridge between the flutes of a column, usually found in the Ionic order
fin de siècle
\”End of the century\” (1890s) in France and Western Europe; connotes an attitude of decadence and uncertainty that characterized the culture and art in a period when the faith in many conventions and institutions had been overthrown
finial
An architectural ornament usually found at the top point of a spire, pinnacle, or roof gable; a finial may also be found on furniture
Flamboyant Gothic
Style of architecture from the Late Gothic period. Means \”flamelike.\”
Flanders
In the \”Low Countries.\” The capital was Bruges, and later Ghent. It included parts of modern-day Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, northern France, and western Germany
fleur-de-lis
A stylized, heraldic lily used as the symbol of the French monarchy.
flutes
Vertical grooves in a column
Fluxus
A movement of the 1960s-1970s coordinated by George Maciunas to redefine art and create anonymous non-art for social change
flying buttress
A masonry structure that transfers the horizontal thrust of a wall or vault to a detached buttress or pier, forming an arch between the supporting structure and the wall. Typically Gothic
font
Vessel containing water used for a Christian baptism
foreshortening
Technique used to create perspective by shortening or compressing an object in the direction of depth
form
The shape of an object or figure. Also can refer to the formal elements that comprise the composition of an artwork and express the artist’s intentions
formal analysis
An analysis of the form of a work of art by examining how all of the elements in the work are used and which ways they shape the work’s perceive meaning and effect
formal elements
The visual, physical elements of an artwork: Line, color, light and shadow, pattern and texture, space, mass, volume, proportion and scale, composition
formal visual analysis
The analysis of an artwork’s use of line, color, light, space, proportion, composition, and other visual elements
Fortitude
The abstract personification of courage and steadfastness
forum
In ancient Roman cities, a public square enclosed by colonnades that included temples, a basilica, and other public buildings
Four Corners
Area of the American Southwest where Utah, Arizona, Colorado, and New Mexico meet
Franks
A people who entered Europe in the 5th century CE, settling first in northern Gaul and ruling a good part of Western Europe
freestanding sculpture
Independent of any architectural setting or frame. This term is interchangeable with \”in the round\” since both refer to sculpture that you can walk all the way round
fresco
Pigment is painted on plaster, either wet or dry
fret
A decoration, usually in bands, consisting of interlocking geometric lines
frieze
This decorative band located above the architrave which features sculpture in Classical Greek architecture
frontal
Viewed from the front
frottage
A technique involving rubbing a pencil over a paper placed on a textured surface to produce an image
fusuma
Paper-covered sliding doors in Japanese architectural structures
Futurism
A call for societal change and an artistic movement founded by F.T. Marinetti in 1909. The style depicts motion and dynamics, often with emphasis on machinery
gallery
The middle level of a church’s interior elevation, second story of the side aisle
Gauls
A non-Greek people living in Asia Minor
genius figure
A representation of an innately divine nature or spirit
genre painting
Narrative art that shows scenes from daily life, particularly activities of ordinary folk
genre scene
Images that depict people engaged in everyday activities
gentiles
A non-Israelite or non-Jewish person; often refers to Christians
geoglyphs
Large images engraved into the ground
gesso
Paint that serves as a base upon which other paint is applied.
gestural abstraction
Another term for action painting, emphasizing expressive mark making and the evidence of the human hand in the creation of Abstract Expressionist paintings
Gestural line
A sketchy, rapidly drawn line emphasizing force and movement
Gigantomachy
A battle between the Olympian gods and the Giants
Gilded Age
A period of expansion and prosperity at the end of the 19th century in the US; a play on the idea of the \”golden age\” through a reference to the superficially opulent decoration characteristic of the period
Gilded
Painted with pigment that has been mixed with gold
Glaze
A form of glassy or vitreous liquid that, when fired, renders a ceramic waterproof and forms a decorative surface
Glazed brick
Requires a two-part process in which mud-bricks are first fired to strengthen the bricks and then covered with a glaze and fired a second tome to melt the glaze into glass making the bricks waterproof
Gopuram
A rectangular tower with a pyramidal roof in a Hindu temple, found especially in India
Gospel Book
A Christian manuscript containing the four gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John
Gothic sway
The s-shaped, graceful, pronounced torsion of a figure’s body that is characteristic of Gothic sculpture
Grand Manner
English term for idealized, classically influenced art that showcased history as well as virtue
Grand Tour
An educational journey through Europe often lasting a year or more, undertaken by English gentry and wealthy Americans for the purpose of studying the monuments of antiquity and artistic achievements of the past
Grave goods
Objects placed in a grave along with the body of the deceased for use in the afterlife
Gravitas
Serious and dignified manner
Greenberg, Clement
An important American formalist critic and the earliest advocate of Abstract Expressionism
Greenstone
A generic term for any green stone in Mesoamerican archaeology
Grisaille
A style of gray monochromatic painting used to represent sculpture within a painting
Ground line
The real or imaginary line representing the base or ground on which the figures in a painting are positioned, and which remove the appearance of floating
Guilds
Specialized medieval economic organizations for artists and craftsmen
Gum bichromate
Photographic printing process (1855-1930) using paper coated with gum Arabic, a photosensitive solution, and pigment. Finished picture often resembles charcoal drawing rather than a photograph
Hammurabi
A Babylonian leader who used cuneiform to record the code of laws for his territory
hard-edge painting
A type of Post Painterly Abstraction in which painters produced sharp, geometric compositions on the canvas
hatching
The engraving or drawing of fine, closely placed parallel lines
Hellenic
the Greeks term for themselves
Hellenistic period
(323-1st century BCE)The period of Greek history marked by the spread of Greek culture throughout territories conquered by Alexander the Great and his successors
Hellenophile
A lover of Greek culture
heraldry
Aristocratic dynastic iconography meant to differentiate knights in full armor from one another; also used as a mark of specific noble houses on a wide range of objects
herm
Plain shafts topped by human (usually male) torsos
Herodotus
Greek historian often known as the \”father of history\” who wrote a lengthy account of the wars between Persia and the Greeks
Herreran style
A Spanish style of architecture characterized by cold, monumental austerity
Hiberno-Saxon
Refers to art produced on the British islands during the early medieval period.
hierarchical scale
A scale of representation in which size indicates the political, social, or spiritual significance of one figure relative to others in the same composition
hieratic writing
A formal, non-hieroglyphic script used by the Ancient Egyptians for religious texts
hieroglyphic writing
A pictorial writing system used by the Ancient Egyptians that uses over 700 symbols to represent sounds, things, and ideas
Hinduism
A major world religion that originated in India and includes a variety of philosophies, beliefs, and rituals
Hippodamian plan
An urban plan built on a grid and divided up into three social districts
Hittites
A people who dominated Anatolia (the central part of modern Turkey) in the ancient world; known for their monumental use of stone sculpture
Hodegetria
A type of icon named for a painting preserved in the Hodegon monastery in Constantinople, usually showing the Virgin pointing to the child with her right arm
Holy Communion
The ceremonial consumption of blessed bread and wine to symbolize the body and blood of Christ
Homer
Greek epic poet, ca. 8th century BCE. Author of the Iliad and the Odyssey
horror vacui
Latin for \”fear of empty space.\” In art, it is filling an entire space with detail
hue
The name of a color
Huitzilopochtli
The Aztec sun god
Humanism
A cultural movement that emerged in the 14th and 15th centuries, tied to the Classical revival in the arts and letters.
hypostyle hall
A hall filled with columns supporting a roof
icon
A piece of religious art, usually in portrait form
Iconoclasm
A movement against the worship of religious icons, involving icons’ destruction
iconoclast
A person who objects to the worship of icons or images
iconography
Literally \”image writing,\” the study of the significance and interpretation of the subject matter of art.
illuminated manuscript
Illustrations and embellished text, often painted with gold or silver
illusionistic space
The painted or drawn image of a three-dimensional space on a two-dimensional surface
impasto
Thick application of paint where the marks of the paintbrush or palette knife are still visible
Imperial type scenes
Stereotyped scenes in which the emperor performs conventional actions that illustrate his authority or virtue
implied line
A line that is not explicitly drawn, but one that is perceived to exist
Impressionism
The artistic period directly following Realism. Discards the details of Realism and instead studies that momentary effects of light and color
in situ
In original place or position
in the round
Sculptures independent of any architectural setting or frame
Inca
Quechua-speaking people who built an empire in western South America, ca. 1438-1533. Known for their stonework and textiles
incipit
opening words in a text in a medieval manuscript
indigenous peoples
People belonging to a particular locale, particularly inhabitants seen as aboriginal to that locale
Individualists
A group of Chinese landscape painters during the Ching Dynasty who emphasized radically individualized style and less emphasis on tradition
initial
The decorative first letter in a sentence
insula
Roman urban buildings, three to sox stories high, usually with storefronts on the bottom and middle-to lower-income housing above, with the least desirable housing at the top
intaglio printmaking
Process of making a print from an etched or engraved metal plate that has been inked, wiped clean to leave ink only in the incised lines, and printed under great pressure directly onto paper
interlace
Decoration made of intertwined lines
intermediate colors
Also known as tertiary colors, A range of colors between each primary color and secondary color of the color wheel
International Gothic
A late form of the Gothic style that is a blending of styles characterized by elegance, naturalism, and realism; it is found across Western Europe circa 1400 CE
International Style
A timeless-looking architectural style from the 1930s-1970s that emphasizes pure geometric form over ornamentation. Characteristics include smooth lines, rounded corners, flat roofs, utilitarian construction materials, and neutral colors
Investiture Controversy
A debate between the pope and the Holy Roman Emperor as to who had the right to \”invest\” bishops with authority
Italo-Byzantine style
Italian art of the 12th and 13th centuries, strongly influenced by Byzantine art
iwan
A vaulted hall open on one end that often open onto a courtyard
Jainism
A religion of India that teaches a path to spiritual purity and enlightenment through a disciplined mode of life. it emerged between the 7th and 5th centuries BCE, and is founded upon the tradition of nonviolence to all living creatures
jamb
One of the vertical sides that forms a door frame
jeremiads
A type of sermon, based on the teachings of Jeremiah, that combats decreasing personal piety with warnings of doom
Jung, Carl
A Swiss psychoanalyst and student of Freud
kapu
Taboos; a system of right and wrong used to reinforce the social caste system
katholikon
The largest church in a given area. Loosely translated as \”cathedral.\”
key
The stone that holds a vault together at its apex
Kinetic Art
A style of art that includes movement in its design
kiva
An enclosed ceremonial chamber, wholly or partially underground, in a pueblo reached by ladder through a hole in the ceiling
Koran
Holy text of Islam
kore
A statue of a young mortal woman
kouroi
Greek for \”young man.\” These are statues of mortal youths, typically nude
lamassu
Large composite supernatural creatures sculpted as intimidating guardian figures and designed to flank gates with an Assyrian citadel
Lamentation
The scene immediately after the descent from the cross in which Christ’s mother and other followers mourn over his dead body
lancet
A slender, pointed window. Often separated by mullions
lapiths
A people in Greek mythology whose home was Thessaly
lekythos
A flask to hold oil, often left at Greek graves as offerings to the dead
Liber divinorum operum
Book of Divine Works, written by Hildegard von Bingen, ca. 1160 CE
line
The mark left by a moving point. It can be actual or implied and can have various attributes such as width, density, and direction
linear perspective
All parallel lines or surface edges converge on one, two, or three \”vanishing points\” located with reference to the eye level of the viewer. objects are rendered smaller the farther from the viewer they are intended to seem
liturgy
Text and written directions for an official church service
loculus
A \”place;\” a space carved into the walls of a catacomb where a body could be placed
Lombardy
A region of Northern Italy
lost-wax process
Method of bronze-casting in which a figure molded in wax is covered with clay, then fired. The wax melts and molten bronze is poured into the space left behind.
lunette
Semicircular area below an arch
madras
Religious schools predating universities
malachite
Copper carbonate; a green stone used extensively in Mesoamerican art
mandala
Generally a square form, it is a diagram of the cosmic realm that represents order and meaning in the spiritual universe
mandorla
Italian for almond. The oval-shaped frame or light that surrounds Christ, usually after his Resurrection
Manifest Destiny
The mid-19th century philosophy that white settlers were divinely ordained to explore and pioneer the wilderness and bring civilization to the indigenous people living there

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