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Anthropology Final Exam Multiple Choice

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a. applied anthropology
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The use of anthropological findings, concepts, and methods to accomplish a desired end is known as: a. applied anthropology b. economic anthropology c. conceptual anthropology d. sociobiology e. participant observation
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d. it is the study of humans
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Which phrase best explains the term “anthropology”? a. It is the study of culture b. it is participant observation c. it is both ethnography and ethnology d. it is the study of human s e. it has 5 sub-disciplines
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c. key informant
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What is the term for an expert on a particular aspect of native life? a. representative sample b. etic informant c. key informant d. biased informant e. life historian
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a. administering interviews according to an interview schedule
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Which of the following is not an example of participant observation? a. administering interviews according to an interview schedule b. helping out at harvest time c. dancing at a ceremony d. buying a shroud for a village ancestor e. engaging in informal chit-chat
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b. ethnology
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What term best describes the study of cultural traits across different societies? a. ethnography b. ethnology c. longitudinal research d. survey research e. genealogical method
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a. It is the process through which culture is learned.
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What is enculturation? a. it is the process through which culture is learned b. it is the instinctive set of behaviors that are transmitted through genes c. the process by which humans shifted to a broader based subsistence strategy. d. the anthropological term for inter-species conflict over resources. e. the cultural component of punctuated equilibrium.
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e. All of the above
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Napolean Chagnon studied what issues among the Yanomami? a. fission and group migration b. warfare and violence c. religion and healing d. horticulture and subsistence e. all of the above
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d. helping to impose development programs when local people do not know what is best for themselves
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Which of the following is not a proper role for an applied anthropologist? a. working with local people in addition to “experts” and officials b. identifying locally perceived needs for change c. helping to design and implement culturally appropriate development programs d. helping to impose development programs when local people do not know what is best for themselves e. protecting local people from projects and policies not in their best interest
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e. All of the abovee
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What does the term “holism” refer to in anthropology? a. considering the physical, psychological, and social aspects of an individual. b. using multiple methods such as ethnography, surveys, interviews, etc. c. Considering multiple aspects of a society such as religion, economics, language, etc. d. comparing multiple inidividuals’ perspectives within a society e. all of the above
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c. longitudinal research
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What term refers to the study of a community, region, society, or culture over time? a. team research b. etic research c. longitudinal research d. survey research e. genealogical method
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d. telephone questionnaires
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Which of the following is not a characteristic field technique of the ethnographer? a. the genealogical method b. participant observation c. conversation d. telephone questionnaires e. interview schedules or survey
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c. elements of culture are connected, such that change to one element necessarily affects other parts or aspects of the culture
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What is meant by the phrase, “culture is integrated”? a. Culture is a universal, based upon the human capacity to use symbols b. it is the argument that behavior in a particular culture should not be judged by the standards of another culture c. elements of culture are connected, such that change to one element necessarily affects other parts or aspects of the culture. d. culture is shared and is not the idiosyncratic characteristic of a single individual e. all of the above
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c. human groups differ in their capacities for culture
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Which of the following statements about culture is not true? a. all human groups have culture b. culture is the major reason for human adaptability c. human groups differ in their capacities for culture d. the capacity for culture is shared by all humans e. cultural learning is uniquely elaborated among humans
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a. genetic transmission
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Which of the following is not one of the ways in which individuals learn culture? a. genetic transmission b. unconscious acquisition c. through observation d. through direct instruction e. conscious acquisition
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Biological anthropology, linguistic anthropology, cultural anthropology, and archaeology
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What are the four sub-disciplines of anthropology?
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e. All of tha above
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In order to demonstrate critical thinking, one has to attend to which of the following: a. data and evidence b. the point of view of the author c. the assumptions behind what is being said d. your own point of view e. all of the above
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all of the above
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Which of the following methodologies were used by Napoleon Chagnon? a. Genealogies b. longitudinal research c. surveys d. census data e. all of the above
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c. Diffusion
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Which term refers to the spread or “borrowing” of a cultural trait across groups either directly or through intermediaries? a. independent invention b. cultural convergence c. diffusion d. acculturation e. none of the above
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c. the in-depth investigation of a particular culture
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Which of the following best describes ethnography? a. the comparative study of multiple cultures b. the study of language in social context c. the in-depth investigation of a particular culture d. the study of the material remains of human societies e. all of the above
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b. Rubbing one’s teeth with hog hairs
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In the article you read on the body rituals of the Nacirema, which of the following was a daily ritual? a. visiting the latipso to be poked and prodded b. rubbing one’s teeth with hog hairs c. praying over a vestibule filled with blood d. inserting sacred needles into one’s tear ducts e. the women baked their heads in specialized ovens
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b. phonemes
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What term refers to the minimal sound contrasts that distinguish meaning in a language? a. morphemes b. phonemes c. syntax d. grammar e. diglossia
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a. syntax
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What term refers to the arrangement and order of words in phrases and sentences? a. syntax b. lexicon c. grammar d. phonology e. morphology
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c. morphology
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the study of the forms in which sounds combine to form words and their meaningful parts is known as: a. phonology b. syntax c. morphology d. lexicon e. grammar
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c. focal vocabulary
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What term refers to the specialized set of terms and distinctions that are particularly important to certain groups? a. syntactical vocabulary b. spatial vocabulary c. focal vocabulary d. vernacular vocabulary e. temporal vocabulary
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b. lexicon
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What is the term for all of a language’s morphemes and their meanings? a. syntax b. lexicon c. ethnosemantics d. ethnoscience e. phonology
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c. phonology
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The study of sounds used in speech is known as: a. historical linguistics b. sociolinguistics c. phonology d. morphology e. ebonics
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d. Their adaptive strategy is made more difficult by encroachment of surrounding food-producing societies
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Which of the following is a characteristic shared by most present day foragers? a. they fish a great deal b. they are wholly dependent on welfare supplied by state-level societies c. they speak simplified languages d. their adaptive strategy is made more difficult by encroachment of surrounding food-producing societies e. they adopted foraging after abandoning more advanced subsistence strategies
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b. redistribution
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Which of the following is not one of the adaptive strategies included in Cohen’s typology? a. pastoralism b. redistribution c. agriculture d. industrialism e. foraging
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e. band
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What kind of social unit is common among foragers? a. tribe b. chiefdom c. segmentary lineage d. state e. band
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c. egalitarianism
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Which of the following is a characteristics of most foraging societies? a. social stratification b. sedentism c. egalitarianism d. irrigation e. large populations
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a. hunting and gathering
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Richard Lee’s article “Eating Christmas in the Kalahari” is predominantly a discussion of cross-cultural experience and food sharing among the southern Tswana tribes of the Kalahari desert. The Kung Bushmen with whom Lee worked practiced which subsistence strategy? a. hunting and gathering b. pastoralism c. horticulture d. agriculture e. industrialism
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a. nomadism
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What term refers to the type of pastoralism in which the entire group moves with the animals throughout the year? a. nomadism b. migration c. transhumance d. potlatching e. redistribution
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a. tribal society
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In which of the following types of society is it most likely that leaders will acquire their positions as a result of their personal backgrounds or abilities, rather than heredity? a. tribal society b. feudal state c. matriarchal chiefdom d. patriarchal chiefdom e. agrarian, pre-industrial state
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b. biological e. sociocultural
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Medical anthropology in contemporary settings draws most heavily from which two sub-disciplines: a. archaeological b. biological c. ethnographic d. linguistic e. sociocultural
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a. water-based
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Which type of water insecurity is caused by exposure to parasites in water? a. water-based b. water-related c. waterborne d. water-wash e. permafrost
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d. bombings
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In Scheper-Hughes’ article “Death Without Weeping”, which of the following was not listed as an issue that strongly impacted infant death rates? a. starvation b. passive infanticide c. catholic doctrines d. bombings e. neglect
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e. all of teh above
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Which of the following sociocultural features contributed to the Tiv’s unique interpretation of Shakespeare’s Hamlet? a. their political structure b. a distinctive respect for the elderly c. local notions of health d. Tiv patterns of kinship e. all of the above
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d. chief
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Redistribution and reciprocity are important to all non-state political systems. However, the ____ must take particular care to practice these else s/he loses their authority over the group and possibly their life. a. Big Man b. Patriarch or Matriarch c. Anthropologists d. Chief e. State head
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d. down, up
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Economic inequality leads to higher anxiety and insecurity. That’s because cooperation and support go ____ and status competition goes____. a. up, up b. down, down c. up, down d. down, up e. none of the above
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a. cooperation and skill
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In tribal type political systems, leaders achieve authority through a. cooperation and skill b. the polity’s authority c. kinship or blood line d. control over the standing army e. none of the above
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b. patrilocality
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What is the name of the post-marital residence pattern in which a married couple is expected to live in the husband’s community? a. neolocality b. patrilocality c. matrilocality d. ambiolocality e. uxorilocality
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a. Strength Theory
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Theorists of gender variation who focus on physical differences other than reproductive anatomy, likely draw from which theory: a. Strength Theory b. Compatibility with Child Care Theory c. Economy of Effort Theory d. Relative Status Theory e. All of the above
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b. not all cultures define incest the same way
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The incest taboo is a cultural universal, but a. not all cultures have one b. not all cultures define incest the same way c. not all cultures know about incest d. some cultures have replaced it with the levirate e. some cultures nevertheless encourage incest
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d. a women and her children
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What constitutes a uterine family? a. a woman and all her female relatives b. a women and all her relatives c. a women, her husband and their children d. a woman and her children e. none of the above
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d. sex
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Which of the following is not culturally constructed? a. social race b. gender c. kinship d. sex e. sexual norms
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a. It tends to be more pronounced among agriculturalists than among foragers
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Which of the following statements about the domestic-public dichotomy is true? a. It tends to be more pronounced among agriculturalists than among foragers. b. It tends to be more pronounced among foragers than among agriculturalists c. it is not significant in urban industrial societies d. it is reinforced in American society by women working both inside and outside the home e. it is not present in the modern industrial states of the Western world.
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a. decreasing divorce rates
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The worldwide increase in female headed households stems from all of the following except: a. decreasing divorce rates b. male migration c. unwed adolescent parenthood d. civil strife e. the idea that childcare is a woman’s responsibility
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c. A status that people have little or no choice about occupying
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What is an ascribed status? a. a status that you choose for yourself b. a status that you earn, as when a successful law student becomes a lawyer c. a status that people have little or no choice about occupying d. a status that has a position of dominance in society, for example that of a king. e. a status that is based on standardized test scores.
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a. age mates or age sets
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When drawing kin diagrams, all persons in the same horizontal line are: a. age mates or age sets b. siblings c. in the same lineage d. in the same clan e. parallel cross-cousins
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b. land, labor, technology and capital
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The means of production are: a. a group of people with specific tasks to perform b. land, labor, technology and capital c. a set of social relations through which labor is deployed d. the regulation of resources e. none of the above.
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c. a set of social relations through which labor is deployed
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The mode of production is: a. a group of people with specific tasks to perform b. land, labor, technology and capital c. a set of social relations through which labor is deployed d. the regulation of resources e. none of the above.
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d. Chiefdom
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In this political system type, leaders are hereditary and status within the social hierarchy is influenced by one’s degree of blood relationship to the leader: a. band b. tribe c. village d. chiefdom e. state
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a. generalized reciprocity
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This form of reciprocity involves an exchange for which there is no expectation of immediate or specific return, but which characterizes a general gift-giving relationships. a. generalized reciprocity b. egalitarian reciprocity c. balanced reciprocity d. negative reciprocity e. positive reciprocity
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d. negative reciprocity
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This form of reciprocity involves a purely economic exchange in which parties try to take advantage of each other: a. generalized reciprocity b. egalitarian reciprocity c. balanced reciprocity d. negative reciprocity e. positive reciprocity
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d. rites of passage
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Induction to the US Marine Corps and the Native American vision quest are examples of: a. revitalization movements b. generalized reciprocity c. totemism d. rites of passage e. imitative magic
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e. alll of the above
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Which of the following was a discriminatory act against Muslims mentioned in “Understanding Islam” by Kenneth Jost? a. The expectation that Muslims condemn the violent acts of other Muslims b. France’s banning of head coverings in schools c. the suspension of a Muslim teacher in England d. Many Western nations’ portrayal of Islam as a violent religion e. all of the above
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d. government programs
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Which of the following avenues are not societal sources of support for Hijras? a. religion b. unrelated “family” units c. performances at special events d. Government programs e. All of the above
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e. C and D
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Which of the following is a reason why racial categorizations are biologically false? a. because there are too few of them b. because there are too many categories c. because human phenotypes cant be discretely categorized d. because phenotypic traits are not consistently linked e. C and D
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b. Africa, because humanity originated here and all other populations can trace their roots to Africa
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Which continent has the most human genetic variation and why? a. Europe, because here people interbred with Neanderthals b. Africa, because humanity originated here and all other populations can trace their roots to Africa c. North America, because there are so many immigrants d. Asia, because there are such high populations e. South America, because racial admixture has created new genetic variation
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e. All are true
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WHich of the following statements about Sambia conceptions of heterosexual intercourse is true? a. it was believed to sap a man’s vitality b. women who wanted too much heterosexual intercourse were viewed as witches c. it was permitted only about 100 days a year d. it was permitted to take place only outside of a couple’s residence e. All are true