ANTH 201 TEST 2 (CHAP 7)

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
The space a species occupies and what it eats are called its:
ecological niche
When an organism actively perturbs the environment or when it actively moves into a different environment, it is engaging in:
niche construction
David Rindos argued that plant domestication came about because:
There were natural selection effects on the plants based on the unconscious activities of people in eating and propagating the plants
According to Bruce Smith, the ancestors of domesticated seed plants were:
Weedy generalists that thrived in disturbed environments and had dietary appeal
To be dispersed successfully in its wild state, wheat requires:
brittle rachis
The process of increasingly permanent human habitation in one place is called:
sedentism
Why is the discovery of remains of many immature male herd animals at a site taken as evidence of human involvement with a herd?
> Hunters kill animals they find; they do not go out of their way to kill only young males
> Only a small number of males are required for reproduction in a managed herd
> In a larger group, females provide more offspring, more milk, and other bi-products (wool, hair)
The earliest evidence for goat herding is from:
11,000 – 10,000 before the present
The evidence from Natufian burials leads scholars like Donald Henry to conclude that:
Natufian society developed social divisions with unequal access to wealth, power, and prestige (social stratification)
How did the Natufians respond to the changes in the resources they depended on?
> Natufians in the Southern part abandoned the settlement and returned to simple foraging, developing “Harifian Culture”
> In the Central core, the people tried to keep the cereal plants growing in areas that were no longer ideal for them
Archaeologists are coming to agree that domestication was everywhere invented by:
Complex foragers living in areas of relatively abundant resources
According to the text, how do sedentism and domestication represent a change in worldview?
> Lands were no longer a free good; transformed into particular territories (Collectively or Individually owned)
> Fields and herds connected people to places
> Transformation of environment in dramatic ways
> Break periods between pregnancies was reduced (required children for work force)
> Woman now sowed, harvests and stored goods
> Decline in the quality of diet
A form of social organization in which people have unequal access to wealth, power, and prestige is called:
social stratification
A ranked group within a hierarchically stratified society whose membership is defined primarily in terms of wealth, occupation, or other economic criteria is referred to as:
class
Constructions on a greater-than-human scale are examples of:
monumental architecture (pyramids, temples, tombs)
Archaeologists digging at a site in Southwest Asia find a series of burials that differ in size, construction, and the quantity of objects found in each. The archaeologists might conclude that the society responsible for the burials was:
stratified
A society in which one person and his or her relatives have privileged access to wealth, power, and prestige is called a:
chiefdom
Which of the following has been an explanation proposed for the rise of complex societies?
> The need arose to construct and maintain irrigation systems in dry regions
> Population pressure required someone to exercise power to allocate resources and keep social chaos from erupting
> Sedentary life in farming villages gave people the leisure time to invent social and technological complexity
Sociocultural features that have been suggested as leading to the rise of social complexity include:
internal conflict/resentment b/w rich chiefs and common people
Which of the following is NOT an Andean society of the pre-Spanish conquest period?
> Moche, Nazca, Tiwanaku, Wari, Chimu, Inkas
The Inka Empire differed from the earlier Chimú culture because it was based in:
> Rural Villages

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