ANTH 101 Ch 10-12

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play
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a framing that is: 1. consciously adopted by the players 2. somehow pleasurable 3. systematically related to what is non play by alluding to the non play world and by transforming the objects, roles, actions, and relations of ends and means characteristic of the non play world
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metacommunication
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communication about the process of communication itself
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framing
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a cognitive boundary that marks certain behaviors as \”play\” or as \”ordinary life\”
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reflexivity
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critical thinking about the way one thinks; reflection on one’s own experience
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art
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play with form producing some aesthetically successful transformation-representation
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myths
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– stories that recount how various aspects of the world came to be the way they are – power of myths comes from their ability to make life meaningful for those who accept them – truth of myths seems self-evident because they effectively integrate personal experiences with a wider set of assumptions about how the world works
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orthodoxy
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\”correct doctrine\” – prohibition of deviation from approved mythical texts
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ritual
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– a repetitive social practice composed of a sequence of symbolic activities in the form of dance, song, speech, gestures, or the manipulation of objects – adhering to a culturally defined ritual schema – closely connected to a specific of ideas that are often encoded in myth
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rite of passage
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a ritual that serves to mark the movement and transformation of an individual from one social position to another
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liminality
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the ambiguous transitional state in a rite of passage in which the persons undergoing to ritual are outside their ordinary social positions
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communitas
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an instructed or minimally structured community of equal individuals found frequently in rites of passage
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orthopraxy
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\”correct practice\” – the prohibition of deviation from approved form of ritual behaviors
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world views
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encompassing pictures of reality created by the members of society
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religion
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ideas and practices that postulate reality beyond that which is immediately available to the senses
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shaman
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a part time religious practitioner who is believed to have the power to contact supernatural forces directly on behalf on individuals or groups
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priest
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a religious practitioner skilled in the practice of religious rituals, which he or she carries out for the benefit of the group
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witchcraft
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the performance of evil by humans beings believed to possess an innate, nonhuman power to do evil, whether or not it is intentional or or self-aware
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magic
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a set of beliefs and practices designed to control the visible or invisible world for specific purposes
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oracles
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invisible forces to which people address questions and whose responses they believe to be truthful
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syncretism
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the synthesis of old religious practices (or an old way of life) with new religious practices (or a new way of life) introduced from outside, often by force
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revitalization
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a conscious, deliberate, and organized attempt by some members of a society to create a more satisfying culture in a time of crisis
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nativism
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a return to the old ways – a movement whose members expect a messiah or prophet who will bring back a lost golden age of peace, property, and harmony
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social organization
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the patterning of human interdependence in a given society through the actions and decisions of its members
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economic anthropology
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the part of the discipline of anthropology that debates issues of human nature that relate directly to the decisions of daily life and making a living
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institutions
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complex, variable, and enduring forms of cultural practices that organize social life
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neoclassical economic theory
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a formal attempt to explain the workings of capitalist enterprise, with particular attention to distribution
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capitalism
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an economic system dominated by the supply demand price mechanism called the \”market\” – an entire way of life that grew in response to and in service of that market
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status
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a particular social position in a group
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gift exchanges
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non capitalist forms of economic exchange that are deeply embedded in social relations and always require a return gift
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commodity exchanges
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impersonal economic exchanges typical of the capitalist market in which goods are exchanged for cash and exchange partners need have nothing further to do with one another
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modes of exchange
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patterns according to which distribution takes place: reciprocity, redistribution, and market exchange
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reciprocity
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exchange fo goods and services of equal value – three forms: generalized (time or value is specified), balanced (return of equal value is expected within a certain time limit), negative (parties to the exchange expect something from nothing
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redistribution
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– requires some form of centralized social organization to receive economic contributions from all members of a group and to redistribute them in such a way to provide to every member of the group
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market exchange
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exchange of goods (trade) calculated in terms of a multipurpose medium of exchange and standard of value (money) and carried out y means of a supply-demand-price mechanism (market)
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labor
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the activity linking human social groups to the material world around them, from the point of view of Karl Marx, labor is therefore always social labor
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mode of production
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a specific, historically occurring set of social relations through which labor is deployed to wrest energy from nature by means of tools, skills, organization, and knowledge
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means of production
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the tools, skills, organization and knowledge used to extract energy from nature
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relations of production
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the social relations linking the people who use a given means of production within a particular mode of production
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classes
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ranked groups within a hierarchically stratified society whose membership is defined primarily in terms of wealth, occupation, or other economic criteria
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consumption
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the using up of material goods necessary for human survival
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affluence
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the condition of having more than enough of whatever is required to satisfy consumption needs
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power
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transformative capacity; the ability to transform a given situation
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political anthropology
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the study of social power in human society
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free agency
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the freedom of self contained individuals to pursue their own interests above everything else and to challenge one another for dominance
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ideology
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a wold view that justifies the social arrangements under which people live
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domination
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coercive rule
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hegemony
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the persuasion of subordinates to accept the ideology of the dominant group by mutual accommodations that nevertheless preserve the rulers’ privileged position
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biopower
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forms of power preoccupied with bodies, both the bodies of citizens and the social body of the state itself
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governmentality
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the art of governing appropriately to promote the welfare of populations within a state

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