Ancient World History Exam Study Guide – Flashcards

question
Cultural Diffusion
answer
inventions or ideas that are exchanged from one society to another which helps push civilization forward
question
Cuneiform
answer
early form of Mesopotamian writing done with a stylus on clay tablets
question
Cataract
answer
term used for rapids located in upper Nile that marked the boundary of the old kingdom
question
Khufu
answer
pharaoh that built and was buried in the largest pyramid of the Great Pyramids at Giza
question
Osiris
answer
Egyptian pharaoh of the dead, afterlife, and underworld
question
Ziggurat
answer
Mesopotamian pyramid/temple known as, "the mountain of god"
question
Neolithic Revolution
answer
period of time when human beings began to domesticate animals and farm
question
Akkadians
answer
group of people lead by King Sargon who established the first empire of Mesopotamia
question
Maat
answer
symbols of justice in the Egyptian mythology, usually symbolized by a feather
question
Homo erectus
answer
up right humans
question
Bipedal
answer
walked up right on two legs
question
Polytheism
answer
having a god for every aspect of the universe
question
Pharaoh
answer
means great house or great palace, most commonly a name for a king.
question
Valley of Kings
answer
where New Kingdom Pharaohs were buried
question
Pylons
answer
big walls
question
Louis and Mary Leakey
answer
discovered a new form of hominids called homo habilis in 1959
question
Sumerians
answer
believed that kings or kingship derived their power from the gods. they were agents of the gods imported copper, tin and timber in exchange for things they grew and caught like fish, barley, wool, & wheat.
question
Sumerian Four Social Groups
answer
elites: priest and royal people dependent commoners: elites clients, worked in palace/temple free commoners: farmers, merchants, fishers, scribes, craftspeople, 90% were farmers. slaves: were used in building projects, females weaved cloth and ground grain.
question
Sargon
answer
leader of the Sumerians, over ran the sumerian states in 2340 B.C.E. he establishes an empire that ended in 2100 B.C.E.
question
Hammurabi
answer
empire builder in Mesopotamia that established Hammurabi's Code. He had 282 laws, "an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth," was the main principle to system of justice
question
Gilgamesh
answer
a king that wrote an epic explaining all his exploits , it was called the, " Epic of Gilgamesh." It has three themes that answered three important questions - civilization, death + afterlife, eternal life
question
Hyksos
answer
ruled over Egypt for 100 years
question
Queen Hatshepsut
answer
one of the first women to become a pharaoh. She built the great temple Deir el Bahri near Thebes.
question
Amenhotep
answer
a pharaoh who introduced worship of Aten (god of the sun disk), he changed his name to Akhenaten (servant of Aten).
question
Tutankhamen
answer
youngest pharaoh ever, restored religion after Amenhotep died. His tomb was the only tomb ever found untouched. Discovered by Howard Carter and Lord Canarvon.
question
Ramses
answer
greatest pharaoh in the New Kingdom. He is the pharaoh that started the name "pharaoh," built many temples
question
Mohenjo-Daro
answer
harappan city located on the Indus River, also known as, "the city of the dead"
question
Maharaja
answer
chieftain of early Aryan tribes, also referred to as, "great prince"
question
Pariah
answer
group in Hindu society thought of as "outcast" or "untouchables"
question
Moksha
answer
hindu term for enlightenment
question
Sangha
answer
one of the three jewels of Buddhism referring to the community of Buddhist
question
Ascetic
answer
someone who disregards all comforts of life and lives outside of society in order to reach enlightenment
question
Atman
answer
term used to describe the "soul" in Hinduism
question
Stupa
answer
early form of Buddhist temple containing a sacred relic or ashes of a guru
question
Sanskrit
answer
ancient Indian written language of the Vedas
question
Reincarnation
answer
to die and be reborn in another body
question
Karma
answer
good or bad deeds that determine how one is reborn
question
Mahabrata
answer
book that consist of 90,000 words written in 100 B.C.E., describes a war between cousins for control over the kingdom
question
Chakra
answer
the wheel of life (the wheel of Buddhism and Hinduism)
question
Mudras
answer
symbolic hand positions of Hindu and Buddhist rituals
question
Nirvana
answer
enlightenment in Buddhism
question
Brahma
answer
(Hinduism) creator god
question
Shiva
answer
(Hinduism) the destroyer, regulates cycle of reincarnation
question
Vishnu
answer
(Hinduism) the protector, avatar-appears in physical forms to save the world
question
Siddartha Gautama
answer
the founder of Buddhism, reached enlightenment and proceeded to educate others on how to reach enlightenment
question
Terra Cotta
answer
material used to make the warriors that were buried near Shi Huangdi's tomb
question
Dao De Jing
answer
chinese philosophy translated as " The Way of Virtue"
question
Longshan
answer
chinese neolithic society that settled along the Yellow River
question
Bone Writing
answer
sketch symbols used to tell the future that wold eventually become the Chinese alphabet
question
5 Relationships
answer
the basic relationship principles of Confucianism
question
Dynastic Circle
answer
process of establishing a new dynasty from a rebellion in ancient China
question
Zhou
answer
aggressive Chinese dynasty whose decline led to the warring states period
question
Filial Piety
answer
respect owed to one's parents and ancestors
question
Well Field System
answer
policy where a peasant works on the field of their lord as well as their own field .
question
Mandate of Heaven
answer
a mandate that stated that heaven maintained order in the universe through the king who ruled as a representative of heaven
question
Veneration of Ancestors
answer
belief that grandparents soul never goes away, it stays in the family and you can pray to them for help as well as good luck
question
Patriarchal
answer
oldest male is leader of family
question
Oracles
answer
wise people who could read signs found in nature
question
Lao Tzu
answer
Chinese philosopher and founder of Daoism.
question
Confucius
answer
Chinese philosopher and founder of Confucianism
question
Shi Huangdi
answer
China's first emperor creates legalist style of government, destroyed all criticism of the government. executed philosophers and burned books under his rule, government was an autocracy (king has unlimited power) built 4000 miles of road, created a standard of coin and writing made high taxes and slave labor he was hated by the people built the Great Wall of China
question
Polis
answer
a city state; city that rules over the surrounding area
question
Acropolis
answer
highest point in the city-state where the most important government and religious buildings are located
question
Hoplite
answer
term for Greek warrior, name of warriors of shield
question
Phalanx
answer
military formation of the Greek warriors made up of a line of soldiers with overlapping shields, usually 4 to 8 men deep
question
Aristocracy
answer
the city-state is ruled over by an elite group of families
question
Oligarchy
answer
the most powerful business and military citizens rule the city-state
question
Sparta
answer
greatest military city-state in all of Greece
question
Trireme
answer
Greek ship that had a ram on the front; ram was used to crash into other ships
question
Democracy
answer
first establishes in Athens; all male citizens can vote and debate on laws
question
Parthenon
answer
largest building in the Acropolis, housed statue of Athena
question
Megalith
answer
greek word for "large stone"
question
Monotheism
answer
belief in one god
question
Pastoral Nomads
answer
people depended on hunting, gathering, herding, and farming for survival. Sometimes overran societies and created their own empires
question
Bronze Age
answer
time when metals especially bronze were used to make weapons
question
Debt Slavery
answer
the most hated of the old Athenian laws, poor farmers who owed money to wealthy landowners could be temporarily enslaved until that debt was paid.
question
Economic Revolution
answer
Athens experiences an economic boom because of their olive trade. Artisans and craftsman become more skilled, farmers become wealthier and demand more political power
question
Garuzia
answer
council of older Spartans who were to old too fight. Advise the king and the efforts on decisions regarding Sparta
question
Azura Mazda
answer
(Zoroastrianism) god of goodness and light
question
Ahriman
answer
(Zoroastrianism) god of darkness and evil
question
Draco
answer
(621 B.C.E.) "The Law Giver," created 1st legal code: gave the poor property rights and protected contracts but did not repeal debt slavery
question
Solon
answer
(594 B.C.E.) outlawed debt slavery, gave all citizens (males born in Athens) the right to participate in government. Any citizen could bring charges against another regardless of classed. Passed economic reforms but not land reforms
question
Pisistratus
answer
1st tyrant of Athens, seized power with the support of the population
question
Lycurgus
answer
was the king of Sparta and decided to remake his society into a military state to control the Messinian population
question
Pericles
answer
ruled Athens for 32 years (461-429 B.C.E.). He had three goals for Athens: strengthen Athenian democracy hold and strengthen the Athenian Empire glorify Athens
question
Homer
answer
blind story teller, wrote the lliad (Trojan War)
question
King Agamemnon
answer
most powerful king of Greek states
question
King Menelaus
answer
brother of Agamemnon, king of Sparta, husband of Helen
question
Helen
answer
most beautiful girl in the world
question
Paris
answer
youngest son of the king of Troy
question
Hector
answer
oldest son of king of Troy
question
Priam
answer
King of Troy
question
Achilles
answer
greatest Greek warrior, half god/half human
question
Odysseus
answer
wisest of the Greeks
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question
Cultural Diffusion
answer
inventions or ideas that are exchanged from one society to another which helps push civilization forward
question
Cuneiform
answer
early form of Mesopotamian writing done with a stylus on clay tablets
question
Cataract
answer
term used for rapids located in upper Nile that marked the boundary of the old kingdom
question
Khufu
answer
pharaoh that built and was buried in the largest pyramid of the Great Pyramids at Giza
question
Osiris
answer
Egyptian pharaoh of the dead, afterlife, and underworld
question
Ziggurat
answer
Mesopotamian pyramid/temple known as, "the mountain of god"
question
Neolithic Revolution
answer
period of time when human beings began to domesticate animals and farm
question
Akkadians
answer
group of people lead by King Sargon who established the first empire of Mesopotamia
question
Maat
answer
symbols of justice in the Egyptian mythology, usually symbolized by a feather
question
Homo erectus
answer
up right humans
question
Bipedal
answer
walked up right on two legs
question
Polytheism
answer
having a god for every aspect of the universe
question
Pharaoh
answer
means great house or great palace, most commonly a name for a king.
question
Valley of Kings
answer
where New Kingdom Pharaohs were buried
question
Pylons
answer
big walls
question
Louis and Mary Leakey
answer
discovered a new form of hominids called homo habilis in 1959
question
Sumerians
answer
believed that kings or kingship derived their power from the gods. they were agents of the gods imported copper, tin and timber in exchange for things they grew and caught like fish, barley, wool, & wheat.
question
Sumerian Four Social Groups
answer
elites: priest and royal people dependent commoners: elites clients, worked in palace/temple free commoners: farmers, merchants, fishers, scribes, craftspeople, 90% were farmers. slaves: were used in building projects, females weaved cloth and ground grain.
question
Sargon
answer
leader of the Sumerians, over ran the sumerian states in 2340 B.C.E. he establishes an empire that ended in 2100 B.C.E.
question
Hammurabi
answer
empire builder in Mesopotamia that established Hammurabi's Code. He had 282 laws, "an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth," was the main principle to system of justice
question
Gilgamesh
answer
a king that wrote an epic explaining all his exploits , it was called the, " Epic of Gilgamesh." It has three themes that answered three important questions - civilization, death + afterlife, eternal life
question
Hyksos
answer
ruled over Egypt for 100 years
question
Queen Hatshepsut
answer
one of the first women to become a pharaoh. She built the great temple Deir el Bahri near Thebes.
question
Amenhotep
answer
a pharaoh who introduced worship of Aten (god of the sun disk), he changed his name to Akhenaten (servant of Aten).
question
Tutankhamen
answer
youngest pharaoh ever, restored religion after Amenhotep died. His tomb was the only tomb ever found untouched. Discovered by Howard Carter and Lord Canarvon.
question
Ramses
answer
greatest pharaoh in the New Kingdom. He is the pharaoh that started the name "pharaoh," built many temples
question
Mohenjo-Daro
answer
harappan city located on the Indus River, also known as, "the city of the dead"
question
Maharaja
answer
chieftain of early Aryan tribes, also referred to as, "great prince"
question
Pariah
answer
group in Hindu society thought of as "outcast" or "untouchables"
question
Moksha
answer
hindu term for enlightenment
question
Sangha
answer
one of the three jewels of Buddhism referring to the community of Buddhist
question
Ascetic
answer
someone who disregards all comforts of life and lives outside of society in order to reach enlightenment
question
Atman
answer
term used to describe the "soul" in Hinduism
question
Stupa
answer
early form of Buddhist temple containing a sacred relic or ashes of a guru
question
Sanskrit
answer
ancient Indian written language of the Vedas
question
Reincarnation
answer
to die and be reborn in another body
question
Karma
answer
good or bad deeds that determine how one is reborn
question
Mahabrata
answer
book that consist of 90,000 words written in 100 B.C.E., describes a war between cousins for control over the kingdom
question
Chakra
answer
the wheel of life (the wheel of Buddhism and Hinduism)
question
Mudras
answer
symbolic hand positions of Hindu and Buddhist rituals
question
Nirvana
answer
enlightenment in Buddhism
question
Brahma
answer
(Hinduism) creator god
question
Shiva
answer
(Hinduism) the destroyer, regulates cycle of reincarnation
question
Vishnu
answer
(Hinduism) the protector, avatar-appears in physical forms to save the world
question
Siddartha Gautama
answer
the founder of Buddhism, reached enlightenment and proceeded to educate others on how to reach enlightenment
question
Terra Cotta
answer
material used to make the warriors that were buried near Shi Huangdi's tomb
question
Dao De Jing
answer
chinese philosophy translated as " The Way of Virtue"
question
Longshan
answer
chinese neolithic society that settled along the Yellow River
question
Bone Writing
answer
sketch symbols used to tell the future that wold eventually become the Chinese alphabet
question
5 Relationships
answer
the basic relationship principles of Confucianism
question
Dynastic Circle
answer
process of establishing a new dynasty from a rebellion in ancient China
question
Zhou
answer
aggressive Chinese dynasty whose decline led to the warring states period
question
Filial Piety
answer
respect owed to one's parents and ancestors
question
Well Field System
answer
policy where a peasant works on the field of their lord as well as their own field .
question
Mandate of Heaven
answer
a mandate that stated that heaven maintained order in the universe through the king who ruled as a representative of heaven
question
Veneration of Ancestors
answer
belief that grandparents soul never goes away, it stays in the family and you can pray to them for help as well as good luck
question
Patriarchal
answer
oldest male is leader of family
question
Oracles
answer
wise people who could read signs found in nature
question
Lao Tzu
answer
Chinese philosopher and founder of Daoism.
question
Confucius
answer
Chinese philosopher and founder of Confucianism
question
Shi Huangdi
answer
China's first emperor creates legalist style of government, destroyed all criticism of the government. executed philosophers and burned books under his rule, government was an autocracy (king has unlimited power) built 4000 miles of road, created a standard of coin and writing made high taxes and slave labor he was hated by the people built the Great Wall of China
question
Polis
answer
a city state; city that rules over the surrounding area
question
Acropolis
answer
highest point in the city-state where the most important government and religious buildings are located
question
Hoplite
answer
term for Greek warrior, name of warriors of shield
question
Phalanx
answer
military formation of the Greek warriors made up of a line of soldiers with overlapping shields, usually 4 to 8 men deep
question
Aristocracy
answer
the city-state is ruled over by an elite group of families
question
Oligarchy
answer
the most powerful business and military citizens rule the city-state
question
Sparta
answer
greatest military city-state in all of Greece
question
Trireme
answer
Greek ship that had a ram on the front; ram was used to crash into other ships
question
Democracy
answer
first establishes in Athens; all male citizens can vote and debate on laws
question
Parthenon
answer
largest building in the Acropolis, housed statue of Athena
question
Megalith
answer
greek word for "large stone"
question
Monotheism
answer
belief in one god
question
Pastoral Nomads
answer
people depended on hunting, gathering, herding, and farming for survival. Sometimes overran societies and created their own empires
question
Bronze Age
answer
time when metals especially bronze were used to make weapons
question
Debt Slavery
answer
the most hated of the old Athenian laws, poor farmers who owed money to wealthy landowners could be temporarily enslaved until that debt was paid.
question
Economic Revolution
answer
Athens experiences an economic boom because of their olive trade. Artisans and craftsman become more skilled, farmers become wealthier and demand more political power
question
Garuzia
answer
council of older Spartans who were to old too fight. Advise the king and the efforts on decisions regarding Sparta
question
Azura Mazda
answer
(Zoroastrianism) god of goodness and light
question
Ahriman
answer
(Zoroastrianism) god of darkness and evil
question
Draco
answer
(621 B.C.E.) "The Law Giver," created 1st legal code: gave the poor property rights and protected contracts but did not repeal debt slavery
question
Solon
answer
(594 B.C.E.) outlawed debt slavery, gave all citizens (males born in Athens) the right to participate in government. Any citizen could bring charges against another regardless of classed. Passed economic reforms but not land reforms
question
Pisistratus
answer
1st tyrant of Athens, seized power with the support of the population
question
Lycurgus
answer
was the king of Sparta and decided to remake his society into a military state to control the Messinian population
question
Pericles
answer
ruled Athens for 32 years (461-429 B.C.E.). He had three goals for Athens: strengthen Athenian democracy hold and strengthen the Athenian Empire glorify Athens
question
Homer
answer
blind story teller, wrote the lliad (Trojan War)
question
King Agamemnon
answer
most powerful king of Greek states
question
King Menelaus
answer
brother of Agamemnon, king of Sparta, husband of Helen
question
Helen
answer
most beautiful girl in the world
question
Paris
answer
youngest son of the king of Troy
question
Hector
answer
oldest son of king of Troy
question
Priam
answer
King of Troy
question
Achilles
answer
greatest Greek warrior, half god/half human
question
Odysseus
answer
wisest of the Greeks