Anatomy & Physiology Terminology Flashcard

Anatomy
is the science of body structures and the relationships among them.
Physiology
is the science of body functions.
Embryology
the study of: the first eight weeks of development after fertilization of a human egg.
Developmental
_________ Biology: the complete development of an individual from fertilization to death.
Cell
Cellular structures and functions. _________ Biology
Histology
the study of: microscopic structures of tissues.
Gross
structures that can be examined without a microscope. ___________ Anatomy
Regional
___________ Anatomy: specific regions of the body such as the head or chest.
Surface Anatomy
surface markings of the body to understand internal anatomy. ______ Anatomy
Neurophysiology
the study of: functional properties of nerve cells.
Endocrinology
the study: hormones (chemical regulators in the blood) and how they control body functions.
Chemical
_________ Level: atoms and molecules
Cellular
_______ Level: molecules combine to form cells.
Tissue
_________ Level: groups of cells and the materials surrounding them that work together to perform a particular function.
Organ
________ Level : structures that are composed of two or more different types of tissues; they have specific functions and usually have recognizable shapes.
System
______ Level consists of related organs with a common function.
Organismal
__________ Level: any living individual.
metabolism
sum of all the chemical processes that occur in the body
catabolism
the breakdown of complex chemical substances into simpler components.
anabolism
the building up of complex chemical substances from smaller, simper components.
responsiveness
the body’s ability to detect and respond to changes.
movement
motion of the whole body, individual organs, single cells, and tiny structures inside cells.
growth
and increase in the size of existing cells, or an increase in the number of cells.
differentiation
the development of a cell from an unspecialized to a specialized state.
reproduction
the formation of new cells for tissue growth, repair, or replacement or the production of a new individual.
homeostasis
the condition of equilibrium (balance) in the body’s internal environment due to the constant interaction of the body’s many regulatory processes.
ICF
intracellular fluid
ECF
extracellular fluid
interstitial fluid
the ECF that fills the narrow spaces between cells of tissues.
Feedback System
Receptor
Control Center
Effectors
Receptor
a body structure that monitors changes in a controlled condition and sends input to a control center.
Control Center
sets the range of values within which a controlled condition should be maintained.
Effector
a body structure that receives output from the control center and produces a response or effect that changes the controlled condition.
Negative Feedback System
reverses a change in a controlled condition.
Positive Feedback System
strengthens or reinforces a change in on of the body’s controlled conditions.
head
cephalic
skull
cranial
face
facial
neck
cervical
armpit
axillary
arm
brachial
front of elbow
antechubital
forearm
antebrachial
wrist
carpal
palm
palmar
fingers or toes
phalangeal
thigh
femoral
anterior surface of knee
patellar
leg
crural
ankle
tarsal
foot
pedal
great toe
hallux
top of foot
dorsum
pubis
pubic
pelvis
pelvic
hand
manual
thumb
pollex
groin
inguinal
hip
coxal
navel
umbilical
abdomen
abdmoinal
breast
mammary
chest
thoracic
breastbone
sternal
chin
mental
mouth
oral
nose
nasal
cheek
buccal
ear
otic
eye
orbital or ocular
temple
temporal
forehead
frontal
base of skull
occipital
shoulder
acronmial
shoulder blade
scapular
spinal column
vertebral
back of elbow
cubital
between hips
scaral
tailbone
coccygeal
buttock
gluteal
region between anus and external genitals
perineal
hollow behind the knee
popliteal
calf
sural
sole
plantar
heel
calcaneal
back of hand
dorsum
loin
lumbar
superior
towards the head, or the upper part of a structure
inferior
away from the head, or lower part of a structure
anterior
nearer to or at the front of the body
posterior
nearer to or at the back of the body
medial
nearer to the midline
lateral
farther from the midline
intermediate
between two structures
ipsilateral
on the same side of the body as another structure
contralateral
on the opposite side of the body from another structure
proximal
nearer to the attachment of a limb to the trunk; nearer to the origination of a structure.
distal
farther from the attachment of a limb to the trunk; farther from the origination of a structure
superficial
toward or on the surface of the body
deep
away from the surface of the body
sagittal
____ plane: a vertical plane that divides the body or an organ into right and left sides.
midsagittal
______ plane: passes though the midline of the body or an organ and divides it into equal right and left sides.
parasagittal
________ plane: divides an organ into unequal right and left sides.
transverse
______ plane: divides an organ into superior and inferior portions.
oblique
_____ plane: passes though the body or an organ at an oblique angle (any angle other than a 90-degree angle)
cranial cavity
formed by cranial bones and contains brain.
vertebral canal
formed by vertebral column and contains spinal cord and the beginnings of spinal nerves
thoracic
______ cavity: chest cavity; contains pleural and pericardial cavities and mediastinum
pleural cavity
each surrounds a lung; the serous membrane of each pleural cavity is the pleura
pericardial cavity
fluid-filled space the surrounds the heart
mediastinum
central portion of thoracic cavity between the lungs; extends from sternum to vertebral column and from first rib to diaphragm; contains heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, and several large blood vessels
abdominopelvic cavity
subdivided into abdominal and pelvic cavities
abdominal cavity
_______ cavity: contains stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small intestine, and most of large intestine.
pelvic cavity
contains urinary bladder, portions of large intestine, and internal organs of reproduction

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