Anatomy & Physiology Terminology
Flashcard maker : Josephine Mack
is the science of body structures and the relationships among them.
is the science of body functions.
the study of: the first eight weeks of development after fertilization of a human egg.
_________ Biology: the complete development of an individual from fertilization to death.
Cellular structures and functions. _________ Biology
the study of: microscopic structures of tissues.
structures that can be examined without a microscope. ___________ Anatomy
___________ Anatomy: specific regions of the body such as the head or chest.
surface markings of the body to understand internal anatomy. ______ Anatomy
the study of: functional properties of nerve cells.
the study: hormones (chemical regulators in the blood) and how they control body functions.
_________ Level: atoms and molecules
_______ Level: molecules combine to form cells.
_________ Level: groups of cells and the materials surrounding them that work together to perform a particular function.
________ Level : structures that are composed of two or more different types of tissues; they have specific functions and usually have recognizable shapes.
______ Level consists of related organs with a common function.
__________ Level: any living individual.
sum of all the chemical processes that occur in the body
the breakdown of complex chemical substances into simpler components.
the building up of complex chemical substances from smaller, simper components.
the body’s ability to detect and respond to changes.
motion of the whole body, individual organs, single cells, and tiny structures inside cells.
and increase in the size of existing cells, or an increase in the number of cells.
the development of a cell from an unspecialized to a specialized state.
the formation of new cells for tissue growth, repair, or replacement or the production of a new individual.
the condition of equilibrium (balance) in the body’s internal environment due to the constant interaction of the body’s many regulatory processes.
the ECF that fills the narrow spaces between cells of tissues.
a body structure that monitors changes in a controlled condition and sends input to a control center.
sets the range of values within which a controlled condition should be maintained.
a body structure that receives output from the control center and produces a response or effect that changes the controlled condition.
Negative Feedback System
reverses a change in a controlled condition.
Positive Feedback System
strengthens or reinforces a change in on of the body’s controlled conditions.
front of elbow
fingers or toes
anterior surface of knee
top of foot
orbital or ocular
base of skull
back of elbow
region between anus and external genitals
hollow behind the knee
back of hand
towards the head, or the upper part of a structure
away from the head, or lower part of a structure
nearer to or at the front of the body
nearer to or at the back of the body
nearer to the midline
farther from the midline
between two structures
on the same side of the body as another structure
on the opposite side of the body from another structure
nearer to the attachment of a limb to the trunk; nearer to the origination of a structure.
farther from the attachment of a limb to the trunk; farther from the origination of a structure
toward or on the surface of the body
away from the surface of the body
____ plane: a vertical plane that divides the body or an organ into right and left sides.
______ plane: passes though the midline of the body or an organ and divides it into equal right and left sides.
________ plane: divides an organ into unequal right and left sides.
______ plane: divides an organ into superior and inferior portions.
_____ plane: passes though the body or an organ at an oblique angle (any angle other than a 90-degree angle)
formed by cranial bones and contains brain.
formed by vertebral column and contains spinal cord and the beginnings of spinal nerves
______ cavity: chest cavity; contains pleural and pericardial cavities and mediastinum
each surrounds a lung; the serous membrane of each pleural cavity is the pleura
fluid-filled space the surrounds the heart
central portion of thoracic cavity between the lungs; extends from sternum to vertebral column and from first rib to diaphragm; contains heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, and several large blood vessels
subdivided into abdominal and pelvic cavities
_______ cavity: contains stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small intestine, and most of large intestine.
contains urinary bladder, portions of large intestine, and internal organs of reproduction