Anatomy ch.1

question

etymology
answer

(etymo: true meaning) the study of word origins, and it can help you remember difficult terms. Knowing the etymology of a structure’s name may reveal something about the structure’s shape, location, or function
question

etiology
answer

(etio: cause) sounds like etymology but is the study of the causes of diseases
question

Biology
answer

(bio: life; logos: words) the study of living things
question

Anatomy
answer

(ana: apart; tome: to cut) the study of form and structure, and it describes how different structures in the body relate to one another. Anatomy also refers to the actual structure of a body part. ex. describe the anatomy of the heart
question

etymology of anatomy
answer

reminds us that much of our knowledge of the human body arose from dissection
question

dissection
answer

cutting apart of dead bodies
question

cadaver
answer

(cadaver: to fall) dead body
question

vinisection
answer

(vivi: living) the cutting up of living things ex. during medieval times much knowledge of anatomy was gained through dissecting condemned prisoners while they were still alive
question

physiology
answer

(physio: nature of) the study of how structures function, but it also refers to the actual function of a body part
question

Two divisions of Biology
answer

anatomy vs. physiology
question

Two divisions of anatomy
answer

Gross vs. microscopic
question

Gross anatomy or Macroscopic anatomy
answer

(gross: obvious)(macro: large; scope: to view) the study of structures that are large enough to see with the naked eye
question

Three type of gross anatomy
answer

regional, systemic, and surface anatomy
question

Regional anatomy
answer

focuses on descrying all structures within a certain region of the body before moving on to another region. ex. a regional approach might expect you to learn all the muscles, bones, blood vessels, nerves, and other structure in the arm before moving on to learn the various structures in the leg. Most medical school use this approach
question

Systemic anatomy
answer

deals with one system in the body at a time before moving on to study another system.
question

System
answer

includes specialized structures called organs that work together to perform a particular function. Ex. the digestive system, which includes organs such as the stomach, intestines, and liver. The digestive system processes food so the body can obtain nutrients for maintaining good health
question

Surface anatomy
answer

relates the position of internal structures to anatomical features that are visible on the body’s external surface Ex. phlebotomist. This is used by physicians an nurses when placing a stethoscope on the chest to hear the heart of lungs, or on the arm to measure blood pressure
question

Phlebotomist
answer

(phleb: vein; tony: to cut) uses surface anatomy to locate and puncture blood vessels with a needle to obtain a blood sample
question

Microscopic anatomy
answer

(micro: small) is the study of structures that are so small that we cannot see then with the naked eye. Therefore, we must magnify them with the aid of a microscope (micro: small; scop: to view)
question

Two major subdivisions of microscopic anatomy
answer

Cytology vs. histology
question

Cytology
answer

(cyto: cell) the study of cells, which are the smallest \”living\” components of the body
question

Histology
answer

the study of tissues, which are groups of cells that work together to perform a particular function
question

Developmental anatomy
answer

focuses on structural changes that occur in the body form conception to adulthood. Three subdivisions: embryology, fetology, and postnatal development
question

Embryology
answer

the study of the embryo, or the first two months of development in the womb
question

fetology
answer

the study of the fetus, or the stages of development from the embryo to birth
question

Postnatal development
answer

the study of the stages between birth and adulthood
question

cell physiology
answer

the study of how individual cells carry out their activities. This is the study of physiology at the cellular level
question

Renal physiology
answer

the study of how the kidneys filter the blood sand produce urine; this is an example of physiology at the \”organ level\”
question

Neurophysilogy
answer

the study of how different parts of the nervous system (brain, spinal cord, and nerves) work; this is an example of physiology at the \”system\” level
question

pathophysiology
answer

(patho: suffering) the study of how disease disrupts body parts
question

pathology
answer

deals with all aspects of disease, including its cause and the anatomical and physiological changes that occur int he affected structures. Pathophysiology is a subdivision of pathology
question

Chemical level of organization
answer

the chemical level of organization deals with matter
question

Matter
answer

anything in the universe that occupies space; therefore the body is made of matter
question

elements
answer

the building blocks of matter, they represent the \”elementary\” (lowest or simplest) form of matter. Ex. Carbon (c), hydrogen (h), and oxygen (o)
question

atom
answer

the smallest stable form of an element
question

molecules
answer

atoms bind with other atoms to form these
question

chemicals
answer

atoms and molecules, they represent the lowest level of organization in the body.
question

Cellulat level of organization
answer

Deals with CELLS
question

cell
answer

the basic unit of life; that is, it is the smallest thing in the body that can be \”living.\” The word \”cell\” literally means \”small room,\” and was applied because the first cells viewed under a microscope looked like a tiny rooms occupied by monks in a monastery.
question

organelles
answer

molecules come together in order to form these, which are specialized structures that perform specific functions inside cells. Ex. of cells include liver cells, skin cells, and pancreas cells. An average adult body may contain 100 trillion cells and there are about 200 different kinds of cells in the body.
question

Tissue level of organization
answer

a group of cells working together to perform a similar function. A tissue would be like a word in this paragraph, since most words contain two or more letters (\”cells\”) functioning together to form a meaningful term. The body contains four times of tissues
question

4 general types of tissues
answer

epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous.
question

Epithelial tissue
answer

a specific type of epithelial tissue that functions as a membrane to cover a surface. ex. the visible part of your skin

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member