Anatomy and Physiology Study

Anatomy
the STRUCTURE of the body and the relation of it’s parts

Physiology
the science of how the body functions

Prokaryote
A unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and membrane bound organelles; ie all bacteria

Eukaryote
A cell that contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles; ie anything except bacteria, all multicellular organisms

Cell membrane
– Cell organ
– Seperates cell from environment
– double phospholipid layer (protein, carbs, cholesteral)
– Semipermeable

Cytoplasm
– Cell organ
Encompasses everythign within the cell (ribosomes, mitochondria, ER, golgi bodies, lysosomes)

Mitochondra
– Cell organ
“powerhouse” of the cell, production of ATP

Ribosomes
– Cell organ
– site of protein synthesis
“packages”
– float or attached to ER

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
– Cell organ
– Transportation network for proteins
– send out Ribosomes

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
– Cell organ
– No ‘packages’
– synthesis of cholesterol, steroid hormones, lipids

Golgi bodies
– Cell organ
– “post office” – receive, package and distribute packages from ER, then exports them
– produce lysosomes

Lysosomes
– Cell organ
“Digesters”
– contain digestive enzymes
– lots of these found in phagocytic cells

Centrioles
– Cell organ
microtubules important in organizing mitotic spindles for cell division

Nucleus
– Cell organ
“Control center” of cell
– contains DNA (chromatin/chromosomes) and one or more nucleoli

Solute
substance that can be dissolved

Solvent
substance that does the dissolving

Solution
when a solute has dissolved and is no longer distinguishable from the solvent

Intracellular
within a cell

Intercellular
between cells

Extracellular
outside a cell

Diffusion
passive movement from HIGH concentrations to LOW concentrations

Facilitated diffusion
diffusion (HIGH concentration to LOW concentration) with the aid of carrier proteins

Osmosis
movement of water through a semipermeable membrane from low solute to high solute regions

Osmotic pressure
the amount of pressure necessary to stop the flow of water across a membrane

Filtration
when substances are forced through a membrane by hydrostatic pressure; small solutes can pass through, larger molecules cannot

Active transport
movement of molecules from a LOW concentration to a HIGH concentration, with the aid of carrier proteins
ie sodium-potassium pump

Phagocytosis
“cell eating”
– cell membrane extends around solid particles and engulfs it into the cell

Pinocytosis
“cell drinking”
– cell membrane extends around fluid droplets

Endocytosis
process of material being taken into a cell
ie phagocytosis, pinocytosis

Exocytosis
process of materials expelled from a cell

Hypotonic
extracellular fluid is LESS concentrated than intracellular fluid
– ie RBC in water will burst

Hypertonic
extracellular fluid is MORE concentrated than intracellular fluid
– ie crenated (shriveled) RBC

Isotonic
concentrations of extracellular and intracellular fluid are equal
ie RBCs in saline

Tissue
group of similar cells that perform a particular function

Histology
The study of tissues

Epithelial tissue
tissue covering body surface, lining body cavities, and part of glands
Function: protection, secretion, absorpation, excretaion, filtration

Squamous epithelium (image)
Squamous epithelium (image)
Flat, thin, platelike cells (at top)

Simple squamous epithelium
tissue that lines blood vessels (endothelium), alveoli of lungs, thoracic and abdominal cavities

Stratified squamous epithelium
– tissue found in areas of wear
– keratinized: epidermis (skin)
– nonkeratinized: lines mouth, esophagus, vagina, rectum

Cuboidal epithelium (image)
Cuboidal epithelium (image)
Tall, rectangular-shaped cells

Simple cuboidal epithelium tissue
– tissue that lines digestive tract from stomach to rectum, bronchi, uterine tubes, uterus
– absorption and secrection (mucus)
– have microvilli

Stratified columnar epithelial tissue
– tissue that is rare but in mammary ducts and male’s urethra

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
– tissue that appears to be more than one layer, but all cells are touching basal membrane
– usually ciliated
– goblet cells, respiratory tract

Transitional eqithelium
– tissue that resemble cuboidal and squamous shapes
– found in areas where great distention is needed
– urinary bladder, ureters, urethra

Glandular epithelium
– tissue that secrete products
– Endocrine: ductless, secrete hormoenes into blood
– Exocrine: have ducts, secrete onto epithelial surface (sweat)

Connective tissue
– tissue composed of cells, fibers, matrix
– functions: support, protect, insulate, connect, transport fluids, stores energy

Collagen fibers
– White fibers
– long, straight, VERY strong

Elastic fibers
– yellow fibers
– long, thin, branching, streatchable

Skeletal muscle (tissue)
Skeletal muscle (tissue)
– striated muscle
– voluntary control
– long, parallel fibers w/ multiple nuclei at periphery

Smooth muscle (tissue)
– involuntary control muscles
– shorter, spindle-shaped, smooth cells w/ central nucleus and intercalated discs
– found in walls of hollow organs (GI tract, blood vessels)

Cardiac muscle (tissue)
Cardiac muscle (tissue)
– Involuntary control muscle
– long, striated cells joined at points called intercalated discs, have a single centrally located nucleus

Nervous tissue
tissue specialized for conducting electrical impulses

Neurons
nervous tissue conducting electrical impulses

Neuroglial
supporting nervous tissue, does not conduct electrical impulses

Mucous membrane tissue
– membrane that lines hollow organs and connects to exterior
– functions to absorb, secrete (mucus usually), lubricate

Serous membranes
– membrane that lines body cavities but does NOT connect to exterior
– secretes thin watery fluid to reduce friction b/w organs
– ie parietal peritoneum, visceral peritoneum, parietal pleura (all are named according to location)

Cutaneous membranes
– membrane on outside of body (skin)
– provides durability, protection, waterproofing

Cranial
toward the head

caudal
toward the tail

dorsal
toward the backbone

ventral
away from the backbone

medial
closest to median plane

lateral
farthest from medial plane

proximal
point closest to backbone, reference to limbs typically

distal
point furthest from backbone, reference to limbs typically

anterior
toward the front part of the body (ie cranial)

posterior
toward the tail part of the body (ie caudal)

palmar
bottom of front foot

plantar
bottom of rear foot

Axial Skeleton
skeletal portion that is found on midline or attached to it (ribs, vert, skull, sternum, hyoid, pelvis)

Appendicular skeleton
skeletal portion that is not found on midline or attached to it (limbs, femur, humerus)

Compact (dense) bone
Type of hard bone that has very few spaces
– composed of haversian canals for blood vessels/nerves, canaliculi (connect haversain canals)

Spongy (cancellous) bone
Type of bone with large spaces that are filled with marrow
– no haversain systems

Osteoblast
Immature bone cell that produces bone matrix

Osteocyte
mature bone cell

Osteoclast
bone cell capibale of dissolving bone matrix and releasing minerals

Osteolysis (resorption)
The process by which osteoclasts disolve bone matrix and release minerals

Long bones
Classification/type of bone
– long diaphysis, 2 epiphyses, marrow cavity
– ie radius, femur

Diaphysis
the shaft of a bone

Ephiphysis
– enlarged ends of a long bone
– composed largely of spongy bone

Articular cartilage
the name for the hyaline cartilage that covers the ephiphysis

Periosteum
fibrous membrane coverying outside of a bone
– rich in blood, nerves, lymph

Endosteum
lining of the marrow cavity

Medullary caviy
space within the bone the contains the marrow

Red marrow
marrow that is hematopoietic tissue, producing RBCs

Yellow marrow
marrow that is primarily fat

Epiphyseal cartilage
region between diaphysis and epiphysis; aka growth plate

Short bones
Classification of small, cube shaped bones
– carpus, tarsus

Flat bones
classification of thin bones
– scapula, pelvis

Irregular bones
classification of bones that have complicated/weird shapes
– vertebra

Sesamoid bones
classification of short, small bones attached to tendons (reduce joint friction)
– patella

Pneumatic bones
classification of bones that contain sinuses
– frontal bones of skull

Osteogenesis (ossification)
the process of formation of bone

Articulations (joint)
formed by two or more bones coming together

Synarthrosis
classification of an immovable joint; fibrous joint tissue, no joint cavity
– skull sutures

Amphiarthrosis
classification of a slighly movable joint; cartilaginous joint, no joint caivty
– pubic symphysis

Diarthrosis
classification of a freely movable joint; synovial joint, has joint capsule
– stifle

Ball and socket (spheroid) joint
type of synovial joint with a head that articulates into a cup-shaped depression
– flexion, extension, ab- adduction, rotation, circumduction
– shoulder, hip

Hinge (ginglymus) joint
type of synovial joit with a cylindrical bone that fits into a depression
– flexion, extension
– stifle, elbow

Gliding joint
type of synovial joint with flat, articulating surfaces
– flexion, extension
– radioulnar, intervertebral

Skeletal muscle (structure)
Long, multinucleated, parallel, striated fibers

Sarcomere
functional unit of a skeletal muscle

Myofibrils
make up muscle fibers

Smooth Muscle (structure)
spindle shaped, one centrally located nucleus

Cardiac Muscle (structure)
striated branching cells joined by intercalated discs

Muscle Contraction (physiology)
Nerve pulse travels down motor nerve axon, Acetylcholine released into synaptic cleft, impulse transmitted/conducted into T tubules, to sarcoplasmic reticulum, Ca released, Ca binds to troponin, binds to myosin binding sites on actin, ATP hydrolyzed (energy), myosin binds to actin, myosin pulls then detaches moving the actin towards center of sarcomere; nerve impulse stops, Ca is actively transported back into sarcoplasmic reticulum, muscle relaxes,

All or none principle
principle that muscle fibers must contract to their fullest or nothing at all

flexion
direction; decreases angle of joint

extension
direction; increases angel of joint

abduction
direction; moves a bone away from the midline

adduction
direction; moves a bone toward the midline

levation
direction; produces a dorsally directed movement

depression
direction; produces a ventrally directed movement

sphincter
muscle that decreases the size of an opening

Stopped at nervous system pg 10

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