AMS Test #2

question

Reach of Spanish empire
answer

cone of the Spanish North American empire was at Mexico city. Used Florida, Texas, Arizona/New Mexico and California as different lines of influence
question

Three Empires that created place in North America
answer

Monterrey Presidio- 1773 military institution/base to protect borders and missions Mission Circa- 1820 catholic outpost used by spanish to extend their borders
question

\”Royal Ordinances for the Laying Out of New Cities, Towns, or Villages\” (1573 Law of Indies)
answer

From the plaza 4 principle streets are to diverge, one from the middle of each side and 2 streets meet at each corner. 4 plaza corners face the 4 points of a compass, so that the streets diverging from the plaza wont be directly exposed to the 4 principle minds
question

Sea coast town
answer

Situated towards landing place of port
question

Inland town
answer

plaza is center of the town, length, equal to one and a half times width, This proportion is best for festivals
question

Spanish Colonial city play/layout
answer

Well planned, orderly, grid like, all according to the laws of the indies by the tyrant, King Philip II
question

Santa Fe, New Mexico
answer

was established in 1610 by Spanish
question

Jamestown, Virginia
answer

was established in 1607 by english
question

Quebec, Canada
answer

was established in 1608 by French
question

Quebec, Jamestown, Santa Fe
answer

All central towns for imperial powers were established around the same time
question

Significance of Santa Fe, Jamestown, Quebec
answer

The Americas were being discovered around the same time, leading to the colonial era of the New world by imperialists
question

St Francis Cathedral in Santa Fe, New Mexico
answer

Built between 1869 and 1886 in the French Romaneque. Part of Santa Fe that a spanish antic claimed had no order and didnt resemble the prosperous Spanish cities in Mexico. However, to Americans, Santa Fe and St. Francis was \”un-american\” and main street. USA begins to fold over old spanish place
question

Early US imperialism
answer

Spanish imperial system in North America resembled Roman Conquest of Greece. Universal order was imposed on a ride sociopolitical and cultural diversity. Started W/ the Mexican war
question

The Mexican War
answer

First war where american army invaded another country and occupied its capital (Mexico city). US acquired new land. Mexico believed Texas to be part of its territory, the annexation of Texas led America to invade parts of California and Mexico. Capture of Mexico city led to US victory. \”US first taste of imperialism\”- Hermann Melville
question

Early Mexico- US migration history
answer

Began when inspection station were set up at every entry along US southern border in late 1800’s. Labor shortages during WWI led to border patrol.
question

Significance of Early Mexico US migration history
answer

It would eventually lead to future US policies and law and constricting public opinions on immigration
question

US Border Patrol
answer

Began in 1924. Mass deportations of Mexicans began in the great depression. Americans poured into California looking for work with desparity
question

Frederick Jackson Turner
answer

Frederick Jackson Turner is a progressive, and believes that change is usually for the better. He describes our expansion westward as progress in the nation. He stated, \”The existence of free land, its continuous recession, and advancement west, explain America’s development.\” Turner believes the American frontier offered relief for Americans that wanted to get away from the European mindsets and old customs.
question

Bracero Program
answer

US government program to permit Mexican labor workers to come into the US to work primarily in agriculture. The program was started during WWII (1942) to maintain production of goods in the US considering many US men had been drafted into the military. The program was weaned out by 1964 after over two decades (and 4.5 million Mexican participants) of being in play. The US and Mexican government came to the agreement of the Bracero program considering the program intended on eliminating illegal crossing and employment by increasing border security and labor laws. However, many farmers continued to employ illegal immigrants to maintain production levels. Also, after the Bracero program was no longer in place, illegal immigration increased again after the war (US labor force back in place). Leads to Operation Wetback. importation of temporary contract laborers from Mexico to the United States
question

\”Operation Wetback\”
answer

Large initiative in 1954 by the US and Mexico government to deport illegal immigrants in the US back to Mexico. The initiative focused largely on the border states but also included major cities such as San Francisco, LA and Chicago. Nearly 4 million illegal Mexicans were deported. The program was started as a national reaction to the increasing volume of illegal immigration and employment despite the Bracero Program, which granted legal immigration and employment to a large population of Mexicans, being in effect. In 1965, Immigration and Nationality Act ended numerical restrictions by country of origin on immigrants allowed to enter the United States.
question

NAFTA
answer

North American Free Trade Agreement.signed by the US, Canada, and Mexico. It created a trading pact between the three. The North American Free Trade Agreement, ratified under President Bill Clinton, went into effect in 1994, to eliminate tariffs over 15 years and to turn the United States, Mexico and Canada into the world’s second largest trading bloc after the European Union. Wealth in Mexico still remained only with elite classes, and wage gap between US and Mexico remained wide. NAFTA maintained deep income inequalities between the two countries.
question

Operation Hold the Line
answer

1993 initiative to increase the border control in the El Paso and Juarez region. The initiative increased the man and station numbers patrolling the border. Was a major change in US and Mexico border control where before, it was focused on deporting illegal immigrants, the shift focused on preventing and intercepting the crossing of illegals.
question

Operation Gatekeeper
answer

Second part of initiative to tighten border. Similar to Operation Hold the Line in El Paso but in the San Diego region and included the building of 10 foot high walls, and other surveillance upgrades to help intercept the crossing of illegal immigrants. Goal was to push migrants into more remote and difficult locations to dissuade them from crossing leads to unintended consequence in increase of deaths trying to cross.
question

Post 9/11 Homeland Security
answer

9/11 attack intensified border security. Increase in the Mexico and US border funding and support by the US government doubling the Border Patrol force, major increase. DHS swallows up INS. In 2004 the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act was passed which allowed the above actions to happen. Key issues at play are: security and path to citizenship.
question

Hyperborder
answer

US and Mexico border offering a complex and dynamic area of cultural and political struggles – this border goes beyond traditional functions of border and creates a relationship between the two countries, where one nation’s future depends on the other (think about the Bracero Program and use of cheap labor).
question

Key Issues of Hyperborder
answer

1. Regulation of flow of goods and people between. 2. despite increase in border security measures, still seeing highest flows of people
question

Great example of disparity between nations despite being neighbors
answer

1. Huge differences between access to telephones, internet, GDP. 2. US- worlds leading immigration country/Mexico- worlds leading emigration country
question

Traditional Functions of Borders
answer

Line separating geographical and political borders. Traditional border functions still applies to US-Mexico, in fact, there is a pervasive sense of urgency for theses functions but globalization is testing these three functions (protection from outside threats, regulating flow at borders, and defining identities within the border)
question

Three functions
answer

1. Protect against outside threats 2. Regulate flow of in and out people and goods 3. Help define socio-cultural identities within nation
question

Human Borders (organization)
answer

Arizona organization with large community that puts water and food sources out throughout the desert for travelers (often illegal immigrants) to use. One of two reactions to the hyperborder. Non governmental organization. ($300,000 to recover dead immigrants bodies compared to $25,000 for rescue efforts)
question

Minutemen project
answer

Troublemaker organization, cause the border patrol has more problems than support, and do not occupy the dangerous areas (like the Devil’s Highway) they are a group of independents that go around acting as border patrols unofficially, do not kill illegals but do take physical action,
question

Coyote
answer

Illegal immigrant smuggler. The \”gangsters of the desert\” They use illegal immigrants strictly for business; they smuggle immigrants in to U.S. → basic source of income
question

Connection Men
answer

Similar to coyote but not strictly Mexico. They help others migrate across the globe and into the USA.
question

Did the connection men have positive intentions? Is that what makes it different to the coyote?
answer

The difference between connection men and coyotes is that coyotes are strictly between Mexico and the US, whereas, Connection men are from any part of the world to US
question

Westward the course of empire takes its way (Westward Ho!)
answer

Painting depicting America expanding and conquering Westward triumphantly. America gives imperialism a try.
question

Land Ordinance of 1785
answer

A move by the US government to divide land west of the original colonies to sell and raise money after acquiring the land after the Revolutionary War. Represents dramatic difference in land use patterns. No longer divided by metes & bounds (traditional way of dividing land – from this rock to this river) simple but problem raising. Instead, Jefferson’s approach to change metes & bounds was sort of an enlightenment to claiming land – rigid rectangular surveys, perfect squares ex: Clarksville, TX vs. Littlefield, TX
question

Frontier Thesis
answer

The frontier thesis is the argument by Frederick Jackson Turner that American distinctiveness/democracy was formed by the American frontier and the process of expansion. The \”germ theory\” states American social and political culture evolved directly from the Europeans, but Turner believed that Europeans had been transformed by the settlement of North America. Turner states that the more Eastward you go, the more American you will find it. Beginning with Savagery outmost west to Civilization in the East coast where most Americans already lived and originally settled
question

Criticisms of the Frontier Thesis
answer

1.) Many \”frontier properties\” still in 2010 where there were only 7 people per sq. mile there’s still more land and everything doesn’t just end. 2.) Chicago in 1820 – doesn’t follow The Classic Turnerian Pattern. It goes from Indian civilization to Metropolis really quickly without going through Turner’s stages 3.) America’s white man’s burden dispels hierarchy of civilizations 4.) Instead of a sequential movement Westward, expansion is best described through military imperialism (tracking US troop movements)
question

What does Turner say about American distinctiveness (or \”exceptionalism\” in the essay?
answer

Turner stated, \”the existence of free land, its continuous recession, and the advancement of American settlement westward, explain American development.\” Essentially promotes it. His frontier thesis of the American being shaped by a westward expansion as a rugged, democratic, and strong individual as being defining factors of \”American\” reinforces the concept of American exceptionalism. He does not discuss the downsides of westward expansion ( I don’t think) as he does not emphasize a victor/victim mentality. (him only discussing the positives of the frontier as defining and representing the American ideal
question

1890 Census
answer

The eleventh census that was calculated by machine for the first time. Data had shown that the population distribution had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier.
question

Chicago and how it fits (or does not fit) Turners Model of Frontier settlement
answer

Chicago doesn’t go through these slow phases, Goes from Indians to massive civilization in one generation. Chicago is driving economic & agricultural development in the countryside. Turns from a very empty small place that is hard to believe that the people of Chicago saw themselves as the path fighters of civilization then dramatically turned into a huge city with perfect grid framework and layout.
question

Myth
answer

\”There are things in a myth that could be real but there are also parts that are totally fictional, these stories embody ways on thinking and cultural symbols and connecting things inside us\”- Brian Dippie. Also myths are hard to puncture by just bringing facts in
question

Ideology
answer

Belief or loyalty to a nation state. Americanism refers to the ideology or belief in devotion or allegiance to the United States of America, and to its flag, culture, and practices. 2 meanings of ideology: 1. Ideology as an illusion (is mistaken belief that leads people to act against their own best interests)- Napoleon. 2. Ideology as a set of ideas that arise from ones or a groups social conditions. Product of social interaction that becomes natural. MAIN POINT: It helps explain the things we negotiate about and out social relationships. We need to challenge ideology, need to think about where we are coming from
question

American Exceptionalism
answer

The theory that the United States is different than every other nation state. It is based on ideals such as liberty and individualism. This is an example of an important ideology: \”America alone has the right to bring civilization, democracy and liberty to the rest of the world, by violence if necessary.\” The utterly unique status of the U.S.. Example: Massachusetts Bay colony according to Regan- Shining city on the hill, The Newsroom First scene(youtube): shows power of ideology and the trouble you get when you burst it
question

Red cloud woman in beauty shop (1941)
answer

Photograph of native American getting her nails done at a beauty shop, interaction between two completely different life styles/people, possibly assimilation- more American to get one’s nails done not traditional Indian culture, difference is highlighted by what the women are wearing, role reversal of economic status at that time
question

\”Geronimo’s Cadillac\” by Michael Murphey (1972) and Geronimo at the wheel, by Walter Fergurson (1904)
answer

Negative response to ideologies about Native Americans and westernization. He felt theat Geronimo and his people should not have been exposed to the European American culture in such a forceful way, essentially being \”whitewashed.\” Then again this assumption promotes another ideology that Native Americans can’t interact with technological advances. Begs the question: Why not?
question

Pine Ridge, South Dakota
answer

Reservation of the Oglala Sioux that is discussed in Frazier’s On the Rez
question

SuAnne Big Crow
answer

Also mentioned in On the Rez. She was a high school basketball star for the Lady Thorpe’s team from 1987-91. Su Anne was also a strong advocate and public speaker against drugs and alcohol. She died in a car accident before she turned 18.
question

Le War Lance
answer

Talked about in detail in On the Rez. He was a personal friend of Fraizer’s. Fraizer describes him as sometimes being larger than life and how times when Le would ask him for money reminded Fraizer that Le was just a man. Re-reading the portion on Le War Lance would probably be the most helpful thing to get more specific examples for an essay on him as well as the article in general, as so much of it was devoted to him.
question

Victor Joesph
answer

Smoke Signals protagonist, he sets off with Thomas to collect the ashes of his father. He is the more stern, rigid of the two, believing others who are not native american are against them and believes a native american has to be strong and angry to fight off such threats. This character is the one who develops the most in the film, where we see changes in how he treats and feels about Thomas (starts off snappy and not very happy to be spending so much time with him to treating him like a brother in the end) and others. His facial expression is usually stoic.
question

Thomas Builds-a-Fire
answer

Smoke signals protagonist, he offers to help Victor in his journey if he himself can join on the trip. He is the more happy, cheerful, and imaginative characters of the two, where he has an abundance of farcical tales to tell about being a native american and the native americans in their community including Victor’s father. He is more open to the outside world, sparking conversations with people who are not native american. You can describe him as very childlike and hopeful. Thomas is more connected with the American ideology, while Victor knows his Native American roots better.
question

Representational Sovereignty
answer

As Native people have lived lives that refused the white expectations, they have also sought to represent their lives, portraying the ways in which Indian people have created distinctly Native spaces that are themselves modern. Result: confounding both stereotypes and ideologies that have been harmful

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member