American Political Science: Chapter 6

Each state has __________ senators elected every __________ years.
two, six

__________ is the process of allotting congressional seats to each state according to its proportion of the population.

What form of legislature did the U.S. Constitution create?

In the House of Representatives, who is second in authority to the Speaker of the House?
Majority leader

A(n) __________ is an unlimited debate in which one senator or a group of senators keeps talking without interruption unless three-fifths of the chamber votes to end the discussion.

The __________ model of representation holds that legislators should feel free to follow their own judgment on matters where the public remains silent.

“Pork” legislation may aid the district of a member of Congress by __________.
a. diverting unallocated funds to the service sector
Increasing jobs and revenue with federally funded projects.

Successful members of Congress share the same policy interests as voters, according to the __________.
a. conscience model of representation
Delegate model of representation

Congressional whips serve what main function?
Persuade party members to toe the party line.

__________ is the only formal method for ending a filibuster and requires the approval of __________ senators.
Cloture, sixty

On average, each member of the House represents __________ voters.

What is the name of the provision in Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution, giving Congress implied powers not otherwise enumerated?
Necessary and proper clause

Once a bill has been introduced in Congress, what is typically the next step in the process?
a. conference committee
Referral to a committee

What were the three most common occupations of members of the 112th Congress?
a. business, law, and public service/politics
Law, public service/ politics, and science

Which statement is true of the House of Representatives?
Members are elected every two years and apportioned to states based on population.

From Figure 6.1, Representing the Will of the People, the __________ model of representation holds that legislators should feel free to follow their own judgments on matters in which the public remains silent.

In a New York Times/CBS poll taken in October 2011, 84 percent of respondents said they __________.
Disapproved of the job Congress was doing.

Why are there currently 435 members in the House of Representatives?
The number is fixed at this limit by Congress.

The number of __________ in state legislatures is a bit higher than in Congress, but parity seems a long way off.

A rise in party unity is indicative of __________.
Low bipartisan levels

The Blue Dog Coalition and the Republican Study Committee are two examples of a__________.

____ committees exist in both the House and Senate, may be temporary or permanent, and usually have a focused responsibility.

A unanimous consent agreement specifies __________.
when a bill will be taken up on the Senate floor, what amendments will be considered, and when a vote will be taken.

The true leader of the Senate is the __________, elected by the majority party.
majority leader

What advantage does a subcommittee offer the legislative process?
Greater division of labor.

The president pro tempore __________.
is a honorific office awarded to the senior senator of the majority party

Which model of representation is enacted when a representative follows the will of the people until he or she truly believes it is in the best interests of the nation to act differently?

The role of Senate minority leader is important because __________.
he or she represents the opposition

The true leader of the House of Representatives is the __________, elected by the majority party.

What did the Supreme Court decide in Baker v. Carr (1961)?
That redistricting is constitutional.

What is the purpose of a dislodge petition?
To force a vote on a House bill within an opposing committee.

Which statement best characterizes the hearing process of a formal bill?
Most formal bills receive a hearing, but few are marked up and sent to the floor.

A committee report is written __________.
before going to the Rules Committee, but after a measure is marked up

What does the conscience model of representation tell us about representation?
A legislator follows the will of the people in most instances until conscience pulls him or her in a different direction.

__________ is another term for reciprocity among congressional colleagues.

Which is an example of logrolling in Congress?
Supporting a bill in exchange for support of one’s own bill.

What is the typical trajectory of a bill in the House of Representatives?
Committee referral
Full committee report
Rules committee
Full House vote
Conference committee
Send to President

A special joint committee created to reconcile differences in bills passed by the House and Senate is called a(n) _________ committee.

In which event was there congressional oversight?
The Watergate Scandal

Members of Congress differ from the larger American population in that they are disproportionately__________.
White, upper-middle-class, middle-aged, and male

Packing and cracking both draw district lines to the favor of the majority party, and thus, are two types of __________.

A __________ is one tactic to signal the leadership that a Senate member may have objections to a bill.

The House minority leader __________.
is elected by minority party

Charged with the responsibility to __________, the __________ is almost certainly the most powerful committee in either chamber of Congress.
grant and set procedural rules, House Rules Committee

This individual keeps close contact with all members of his or her party, counts votes for key legislation, prepares summaries of bills, and acts as a communications link within the party.
Majority/ Minority whip.

How might a bill become law if it has been pocket vetoed?
Congress may override the pocket veto with a two-thirds vote in each chamber.

What was the ultimate result of the Baker v. Carr (1961) decision?
House districts were standardized to contain equal numbers of constituents.

Which kind of committee can be convened to conduct a special investigation in the event of a major scandal?

Which example best demonstrates a legislator acting as a trustee of his or her constituency?
Considering public opinion, then using his or her own best judgment about what is good for the nation as a whole.

__________ is a good example of Congressional casework.
Assistance to a constituent in obtaining a Social Security check

Which of the following is true of majority-minority districts?
Creation of majority-minority districts was ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.

Which example best demonstrates a legislator acting as a delegate of his or her constituency?
following the public opinion of the constituency, regardless of his or her personal viewpoint

Executive deference to senior committee members is an example of __________.
senatorial courtesy

In comparison to the House of Representatives, which of the following are considered to be general characteristics of the Senate?
More media coverage, somewhat less partisan.

How are committee chairs traditionally selected in the House?
Interviews to determine party loyalty.

In comparison to the Senate, which of the following are considered to be general characteristics of the House of Representatives?
Less flexible rules, more partisan

Which response best reflects the dilemma of pork in legislation?
Programmatic requests favor one district at the expense of all American taxpayers.

What best represents the trend of party polarization over the last three decades?
Party polarization has increased as bipartisanship has decreased.

A member of Congress guided by the politico model of representation __________.
follows his or her own judgement unless the constituency objects

Due to the large number of women who ran for office in 1990, that year has been called the “Year of the Woman.”

Close observers of the legislative branch argue that in the past few decades, members of Congress have become more ethical.

Although the delegate perspective was dominant in the early years of the Republic, several changes have made the delegate model more popular today.

A bill goes through markup in a full committee after a subcommittee votes in favor of it.

When the vice president is not present, the House is formally led by its elected president pro tempore.

The House currently has 435 members, but this number increases every ten years with the taking of the census, as mandated by the Constitution.

Using the conscience model of representation, a legislator follows the will of the people, until conscience pulls him or her in a different direction.

Article II, Section 3 of the Constitution stipulates that each state will have two senators elected for terms of six years each.

Most of the day-to-day lawmaking and oversight of Congress occur at the subcommittee level.

The __________ model of representation holds that a legislator should consider the will of the people but then do what he or she thinks is best for the nation as a whole and in the long term.

A conference committee is comprised of members from the House and Senate committees that originally considered the bill.

In the face of inaction by House membership, a dislodge petition signed by a majority can force a bill out of a committee and to the floor.

The vast majority of bills receive a subcommittee hearing, but not full passage.

Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution enumerates the powers of Congress: powers are specific and limited rather than implied.

Although the Constitution allows states to create their own legislative boundaries, gerrymandering in favor of any partisan or racial group is expressly forbidden by law.

Article I, Section 2 of the Constitution stipulates that each House member must reside in the district he or she represents.

_______ is the counterpart to the majority leader in the House opposition party.

_______ committees are standing committees that include members from both houses of Congress, and are set up to conduct investigations or special studies.

_______ is a vote to end debate which requires a three-fifths vote of the entire membership of the Senate.

Congress may override a presidential veto with a(n) _______ vote in each chamber.

The Constitution specifies that the presiding officer of the Senate is the vice president; however, the _______ presides in the vice president’s absence.

Only one member of Congress may _______ a bill at its introduction, though other members show support by placing their names on the legislation

Figure 6.2, That’s Not a Salamander; It’s a Gerrymander! illustrates the origins of __________ and __________, the two main ways redistricting is abused.

After the Speaker, the next most powerful person in the House is the _______.

Article I, Section 1, of the Constitution established a _______ legislature.

Cloture is the only way to end a(n) _______.

Although individual senators are perceived as more powerful than their House counterparts, the Senate _______ is less powerful than the Speaker of the House.

Because the Senate lacks a rules committee, it relies instead on a _______ negotiated by the majority and minority leaders, to govern consideration of a bill.

_______ decides who shall be recognized to speak on the House floor, rules on points of order, and has the power of referral.

Because they continue from one Congress to the next, _______ committees are permanent fixtures to which bills are referred for consideration.

House members each represent approximately _______ per district.


The legal system used by the United States and other countries in which a judge plays a relatively passive role as attorneys battle to protect each side’s interests is known as the __________ system.

a. adversarial
b. inquisitorial
c. dual court
d. courts of last resort
e. common law


Separate systems of state and federal courts throughout the United States are known as the __________ system.

a. adversarial
b. inquisitorial
c. dual court
d. courts of last resort
e. common law

dual court

The __________ Act of 1789 established the federal court system.

a. Federal Courts
b. Appellate
c. Confirmation
d. Interpretation
e. Judiciary


How many justices currently serve on the Supreme Court?

a. five
b. six
c. twelve
d. nine
e. eight


In which of the following cases did the Supreme Court first claim the right of judicial review?

a. Chishom v. Georgia
b. Brown v. Board of Education
c. United States v. Nixon
d. Dred Scott v. Sandford
e. Marbury v. Madison

Marbury v. Madison

In which court do cases generally begin?

a. trial
b. appellate
c. original
d. constitutional
e. state


When a case is granted review in an appellate court, the parties submit written __________ presenting their arguments.

a. ledgers
b. motions
c. briefs
d. opinions
e. plans


A writ of __________ is a request submitted to the U.S. Supreme Court to review a lower court decision.

a. mandamus
b. prohibition
c. capias
d. attachment
e. certiorari


For a case to be heard in the Supreme Court, a minimum of how many justices must vote to hear the case?

a. one
b. four
c. five
d. nine
e. six


10. Following oral arguments, the justices gather for a __________, during which they discuss the case and cast preliminary votes.

a. conference
b. meeting
c. hearing
d. review
e. circuit


How many levels does the federal judiciary have?

a. two
b. six
c. four
d. three
e. five


The highest appellate courts in the state and federal systems are known as __________.

a. courts of last resort
b. adversarial courts
c. inquisitorial courts
d. dual courts
e. courts of common law

courts of last resort

Elected state and national legislators draft laws referred to as __________ that judges must interpret.

a. writs
b. briefs
c. decrees
d. statues
e. ordinances


The power of American judges to nullify decisions and actions by other branches of government, if the judges decide those actions violate the U.S. Constitution or the relevant state constitution, is known as __________.

a. judicial implementation
b. judicial review
c. common law
d. public trust
e. constitutional law

judicial review

What is the name of the process in Congress that can remove the president, federal judges, and other high officials from office?

a. entrenchment
b. judicial review
c. the Judiciary Act
d. impeachment
e. arraignment


Which of the following nominates U.S. federal judges?

a. president
b. vice president
c. chief justice
d. Senate
e. Supreme Court


According to Table 9.4, Primary Methods of Initial Judicial Selection for State Judges, which of the following states selects judges through partisan elections?

a. Michigan
b. Oregon
c. Pennsylvania
d. Maine
e. South Carolina


Which of the following is the authority vested in a particular court to hear and decide the issues in a particular case?

a. jurisdiction
b. judicial review
c. jurisprudence
d. confirmation
e. filibuster


What is the name given to the power of the courts to interpret, and overturn, the actions of the executive and legislative branches?

a. original jurisdiction
b. strict construction
c. judicial review
d. precedent
e. stare decisis

judicial review

Which president made an unsuccessful proposal known as the “court-packing plan,” which would have permitted the appointment of additional justices to the U.S. Supreme Court?

a. Bill Clinton
b. John Adams
c. Thomas Jefferson
d. Franklin Roosevelt
e. James Madison

Franklin Roosevelt

Federal judges are appointed to __________ terms.

a. two-year
b. three-year
c. life
d. ten-year
e. twenty-year


The authority to be the first court to hear a case is which type of jurisdiction?

a. appellate
b. constitutional
c. federal
d. original
e. trial


A(n) __________ brief is submitted by someone who is not a party to the case.

a. amicus curiae
b. appellate
c. habeas corpus
d. outsider
e. coram nobis

amicus curiae

Only a(n) __________ court can review the decisions of a lower court.

a. trial
b. original
c. administrative
d. constitutional
e. appellate


The U.S. courts of appeals are divided into __________ numbered circuits and two unnumbered circuits.

a. nine
b. twelve
c. thirteen
d. eleven
e. six


The ruling in which of the following cases declared racial segregation in public schools to be unconstitutional, but did not desegregate schools?

a. Gideon v. Wainwright
b. McCulloch v. Maryland
c. Brown v. Board of Education
d. Marbury v. Madison
e. Plessy v. Ferguson

Brown v. Board of Education

Which of the following is an opinion written by a justice in the majority that outlines additional considerations he or she thinks are important?

a. concurring
b. en banc
c. majority
d. per curiam
e. dissenting


Who attempted to expand the number of Supreme Court justices in 1937?

a. Chief Justice Warren
b. President Hoover
c. Chief Justice Marshall
d. President Roosevelt
e. President Wilson

President Roosevelt

Proponents of which of the following believe that judges should use their power broadly to further justice?

a. judicial restraint
b. judicial constructionism
c. judicial activism
d. judicial originalism
e. judicial implementation

judicial activism

The existence of two court systems within each state reflects American __________, under which state governments and the federal government both exercise authority over law and public policy.

a. federalism
b. supremacy
c. constitutionalism
d. originalism
e. statism


In which federal courts are trials conducted?

a. circuit
b. district
c. common
d. original
e. public


According to Table 9.3, Judicial Review, which case showed the Supreme Court rejecting arguments about the president’s power to hold suspects indefinitely without any rights, any contact with attorneys, or any access to the courts?

a. Marbury v. Madison
b. Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission
c. McDonald v. City of Chicago
d. Hamdi v. Rumsfeld
e. Arizona Free Enterprise Club’s Freedom Club PAC v. Bennett

Hamdi v. Rumsfeld

Courts provide a statement of the legal reasoning behind their decisions in written __________.

a. briefs
b. arguments
c. opinions
d. laws
e. pamphlets


Which of the following represents an approach to understanding judicial decision-making that emphasizes the importance of courts’ structures and processes as well as the courts’ role in the governing system?

a. new institutionalism
b. strategic voting model
c. attitudinal model
d. judicial intention
e. flexible interpretation

new institutionalism

Atkins v. Virginia used which type of interpretive approach to conclude that execution of those with mental and developmental disabilities was an unconstitutional punishment?

a. originalist
b. flexible
c. institutional
d. attitudinal
e. judicial restraint


Congress cannot expand the Supreme Court’s __________ jurisdiction.

a. appellate
b. constitutional
c. criminal
d. original
e. civil


What are the two types of jurisdiction courts can have?

a. original and appellate
b. trial and appeals
c. constitutional and statutory
d. active and restrained
e. legislative and constitutional

legislative and constitutional

Which of the following is within the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court?

a. federal criminal matters
b. tax disputes
c. military tribunals
d. controversies between the states
e. property disputes

controversies between the states

When the Supreme Court decided that the Eighth Amendment prohibition on “cruel and unusual punishments” forbids the application of the death penalty to offenders with mental development disabilities (Atkins v. Virginia, 2002), the majority of justices used a(n) __________ approach that claimed society’s views about punishments for such individuals had changed over time.

a. attitudinal model
b. strategic voting model
c. flexible interpretation
d. new institutionalism
e. judicial intention

flexible interpretation

An interest group may sponsor or present a __________ case in the court pathway to influence public policy.

a. curiae
b. lobbying
c. grassroots
d. jurisdictional
e. test


According to Table 9.1A, Structure of the American Court System, which type of court would have original jurisdiction over cases involving foreign ambassadors?

a. U.S. Supreme Court
b. state supreme courts
c. U.S. courts of appeal
d. state courts of appeal
e. U.S. district courts

U.S. district court

According to Table 9.1A, Structure of the American Court System, which type of court has no original jurisdiction because no cases are first filed in these courts?
a. U.S. Supreme Court

b. state supreme courts
c. U.S. courts of appeal
d. state courts of appeal
e. U.S. district courts

U.S. courts of appeal

Appellate courts have appellate jurisdiction, meaning they review specific __________ that allegedly occurred in trial court processes or in decisions of appellate courts beneath them in the judicial hierarchy.

a. pleas
b. verdicts
c. appeals
d. errors
e. briefs


How many courts of appeals are in the federal system?

a. two
b. six
c. thirteen
d. eleven
e. five


A legal rule established by a judicial decision that guides subsequent decisions in court rulings is known as which of the following?

a. per curiam
b. case precedent
c. coram nobis
d. amicus curiae
e. common law

case prrecedent

In a process known as __________, presidents generally allow senators from the state in which a judicial vacancy occurs to block the nomination.

a. advice and consent
b. presidential deference
c. judicial review
d. senatorial courtesy
e. Senate confirmation

senatorial courtesy

Members of the minority political party in the Senate may block a vote on the appointment of a judge through a __________.

a. judicial election
b. confirmation hearing
c. partisan election
d. judicial implementation
e. filibuster


The attitudinal model analyzes judicial decision making by looking at the decision __________ of individual judges to identify attitudes and values guiding those decisions.

a. outcomes
b. reasoning
c. timing
d. patterns
e. style


When the U.S. Supreme Court agrees to hear a case appealed to it from a circuit court, it is exercising its __________ jurisdiction.

a. original
b. constitutional
c. mandatory
d. appellate
e. legislative


According to the principle of __________, a court should not overturn prior judicial decisions unless it is absolutely necessary.

a. original intent
b. judicial review
c. case precedent
d. prior restraint
e. judicial privilege

case precedent

What type of law governs relationships between individuals and defines their legal rights?

a. positive
b. civil
c. criminal
d. constitutional
e. personal


Which of the following can modify a decision of the Supreme Court?

a. an executive order from the president
b. a federal statute passed by the Senate
c. a lower court decision
d. the agreement of at least five justices that a prior decision was wrongly decided
e. a writ of certiorari

the agreement of at least five justices that a prior decision was wrongly decided

All federal judicial nominations are first referred to which of the following for a hearing?

a. House Judiciary Committee
b. Senate Nominations Committee
c. Supreme Court
d. Senate Judiciary Committee
e. attorney general

Senate Judiciary Committee

If a judge believes that she should only strike down laws that clearly violate the Constitution, she likely believes in which of the following?

a. judicial activism
b. judicial conservatism
c. judicial originalism
d. judicial restraint
e. judicial construction

judicial restraint

The conference of the U.S. Supreme Court is __________.

a. open to the justices and the public
b. limited to the justices themselves
c. open to the justices and other court staff
d. open to the justices and the president
e. open to the justices and all members of Congress

limited to the justices themselves

In Federalist No. 78, why did Alexander Hamilton call the judiciary the “least dangerous” branch of government?

a. It lacked the power of the “purse.”
b. It could force people to obey only constitutional laws.
c. It lacked the power of the “sword.”
d. It had no legitimate power.
e. It lacked the power of the “purse or sword.”

It lacked the power of the “purse or sword”.

Which of the following limits judicial power?

a. judicial review
b. judicial activism
c. case precedent
d. constitutional courts
e. senatorial courtesy

case precedent

A court that hears and weighs evidence in order to reach the first decision in a civil or criminal case is a court of __________ jurisdiction.

a. appellate
b. constitutional
c. trial
d. original
e. mandatory


Which of the following justices on the Roberts Court believes that constitutional interpretation must follow original intent in order to avoid judicial activism?

a. John Roberts
b. Elena Kagan
c. Ruth Bader Ginsburg
d. Anthony Kennedy
e. Clarence Thomas

Clarence Thomas

Which of the following did the Supreme Court invalidate in Dred Scott v. Sandford?

a. Connecticut Compromise
b. Virginia Compromise
c. Missouri Compromise
d. New Jersey Compromise
e. Maryland Compromise

Missouri Compromise


district courts

appellate courts

Supreme Court




The U.S. courts of appeal have no original jurisdiction.

The Supreme Court regularly exercises its original jurisdiction.




state courts

There are no juries in _____ courts.

Trial courts are courts of _____ jurisdiction, meaning they receive cases first, consider the available evidence, and make the initial decision.

In the federal system, the U.S. Supreme Court is the court of last _____.

_____ represents the body of prior judicial decisions.
Case precedent

_____ interpretation is an approach to interpreting the U.S. Constitution that permits the meaning of the document to change with evolving values, social conditions, and problems.

The circuit courts hear appeals from the _____ courts.
federal district

According to Table 9.2, Supreme Court Justices, Justice _____ is the most conservative member of the current court.

An alternative theory of judicial decision-making, known as the _____ model, states that Supreme Court justices’ opinions are driven by their attitudes and values.

New _____ is an approach that emphasizes understanding courts as institutions and seeing the role of courts in the larger political system.

For effective advocacy in litigation, _____ is essential.

Interest groups seek to find an appropriate _______ case that will serve as the vehicle to persuade judges to change law & policy.

Because of the country’s _____ court system, there is often a choice to be made about whether state or federal courts are more likely to produce outcomes favorable to a group’s interests.

Judges who do not agree with the outcome of a case write _____ opinions.

If North Dakota sues South Dakota, the case will be heard by the _____.
Supreme Court

Judicial _____ encourages deference to the policy judgments of elected branches of government.
self restraint

Interest groups seek to find an appropriate _______ case that will serve as the vehicle to persuade judges to change law & policy.

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