American Media History Ch 1-3

Flashcard maker : Josephine Mack
Johannes Gutenburg
movable printing press.
Printing Press
allowed production of cheap literature- print could now reach the masses. Knowledge was no longer just for the privileged. Type preserved info & enabled it to be shared.
John Milton
argued that whenever truth and falsehood compete \”in the marketplace of ideas truth always wins…. became known as the self-righting principle which became one of the enduring elements in the belief system of modern journalists.
John Locke
\”father of American democracy\” Government thrives under the consent of those governed. Also believed people have the right to rise up against the tyrannical leader
Benjamin Harris
published The Publick Occurrences, Both Foreign & Domestick. A 3 page paper, in Boston. It was shut down by the government after 1 issue.
Ben Franklin
a true Renaissance man, a writer, editor, and publisher who knew sex sells, and attracted readers with sex and crime. His use of sensationalism was repeated in 1830 with the penny press and the 1890s with yellow journalism
John Peter Zenger
published criticism of the british colonial governor of NY & his administration. Arrested and jailed on charges of seditious libel, which authorities believed could incite rebellion against the gov’t. Zenger was tried and found not guilty. This case created an important event that led to the tradition of free press in America. \”Its not libel if its true.\”
Women in the Press
by 1776, at least 14 women had been trained by their families
British Stamp Act of 1765
imposed a heavy tax on paper, the pre-revolutionary press denounced the act and refused to pay. The tax was intended to recoup losses from protecting America during the French & Indian War. The tax fell heaviest on lawyers & publishers.
James Rivington
tried to print both sides of public questions. Left NY after rebels destroyed his shop. Returned when British occupied city & began a Tory paper
Thomas Paine
author of \”Common Sense\”, which sold 150,000 copies. It laid out the reasoning for rebellion/democracy
Samuel Adams
worked with the Sons of Liberty and formed Committees of Correspondence between different communities and colonies, which helped patriots to have a news network.
Beginner of modern news services… ex: The Associated Press
American Revolution & newspapers
the Revolution left newspapers more powerful. The number of papers grew, along with circulation. The work of these papers was not planning a new society, but rather complaining of the injustices of the old society.
George Washington
Allowed newspapers to report on government & to criticize the president.
Partisan Press
The dark age of newspapers because the papers were vicious in personal attacks. It was a time when the nation was trying to determine what form of government to adopt. Both sides (Feds&Anti) used newspapers to advance their cause. Newspapers were not objective but were aligned with one party or another. Papers made their money by political party donations
led by Alexander Hamilton, who wanted strong centralized government.
led by Thomas Jefferson, who wanted more localized gov’t.
Alien & Sedition Laws
passed by Congress in 1798. Federal gov’ts first attempt to control the press by jailing those who published anti-gov’t writings. Real intent was for the federalist gov’t to stifle the anti-fed press
Thomas Jefferson
first president to have what amounted to an official newspaper of the gov’t. He picked the editor of then National Gazette.
Philip Freneau
first powerful crusading editor in America, chosen by Thomas Jefferson. Editor of the National Gazette, an anti-federalist newspaper. \”Father of American Literature\”
Alexander Hamilton
author of the Federalist Papers, 85 articles published in newspapers, pamphlets & books. They laid out the case for the Federalists & the need for a strong central government. Killed in duel with Vice President Aaron Burr, partly the result of newspaper articles that quoted Hamilton criticizing Burr
1833-end of century
Newspaper was established as a capitalist institution and placed in private hands and freed from political party and gov’t control
Mass Media Industries
1. books
2. Newspapers
3. Magazines
4. Recordings
5. Radio
6. Movies
7. Television
8. Internet
Boston News-Letter
First continuously published American newspaper. Est in 1704.
How media primarily makes its money. Media makes more money from advertising than direct purchase of products.

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