American History Exam 2

Flashcard maker : Ruth Blanco
Technology Revolution
Alexander Ghram Bell
Thomas Edison
The Wright Brothers
Henry Ford – model T Ford
Impacted the construction of:
-Highways
-Drive In theatres
-Motels
-Gas Stations
Land issues/Naive Americans
Attempted to integrate native Americans into white society as farmers
-Made them into small property owners
Critics felt that it undemined tribal soverntity
\”Killing us with kindness\”
Expansion of the Railroad
1860 – 35,000 miles of track
1900 – 200,000 miles of track

Aided in the transportation of goods, provided employment, opened up the west for settlement, and benifited the postal service.

Central Pacific – from Sacremento east
Union Pacific – from Omaha west

Componets of the Railroad
Land – Provided by the government
Steel – Provided by Andrew Carnegie
Labor – Provided by imigrints
Money – Provided by j.P. Morgan
The Gilded Age
Took place 35 years after the Civil War
A quick movemwnt into industry – \”Industrial Revolution\”
J.P. Morgan
Arogant – contmept for \”ordinary\” people
Refused to loan money to the Federal government until 1880
Main area of focus was the railroad
The Robber Barons
\”Captains of Industry\” &\”Theives\”
-J.P. Morgan
-Andrew Carnagie
90% claimed to be religious
All attributed their success to hard work and God
The Populist Party
Farmers had problems that were beyond their control
-Needed money which they could only get
from Eastern banks
-Neede tools and machinery
-Dependent on weather
-Dependent on the economy
Formed a political party and supported the Democrats
the Dawes Act of 1887
Cause the land related problems with the Native Americans
the Homestead Act of 1862
grant land to settlers for $1.25 an acre or free if they lived on it for five years
Rev. Josiah Strong
Argued that Americawas the true center of Anglo-Saxon virtue and was destined to spread it
Alfred Thayer Mann
Naval captain, wrote \”The Influence of Sea Power on History\”
\”the United States should seek global dominance through its navy\”
William Henry Seward
United States politician who as secretary of state in 1867 arranged for the purchase of Alaska from Russia (known at the time as Seward’s Folly) (1801-1872)
Booker T. Washington
Prominent black American, born into slavery, who believed that racism would end once blacks acquired useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society, was head of the Tuskegee Institute in 1881. His book \”Up from Slavery.\”
William E.B. Dubois
A fearless activist who was determined to confront disenfranchisement, Jim Crow and Lynching. He wrote\” The Souls of Black Folk\” (contained the first formal attack towards Washington and his friendship). Lead the Niagara movement. First black scholar to graduate from Harvard. Established the NAACP. Also wrote \”Double consciousness\” the discussion among 2 types of blacks (American but still black) African American operate in the background during work. The upper 10 %( educated ones) helped blacks advance.
Albert Beveridge
A historian and United States Senator from Indiana who also was a skilled orator. One of his speeches justified the annexation of the Philippines, thus promoting a growth of American imperialism.
Mark Hanna
An industrialist and Republican politician from Ohio. The campaign manager of McKinley in the 1896, in what is considered the forerunner of the modern political campaign, and subsequently became one of the most powerful members of the U.S. Senate.
Problems with Labor Unions
– not clear on motives
– didn’t seem unified
– didn’t share similarities
– lack of leadership
– public didn’t trust them
– no common language
\”Molly Maguires\”
A secret Irish organization of coal miners in regions of western Pennsylvania and West Virgina in the mid to late 1800’s. The miners worked together to achieve better working conditions, and when demands weren’t met, they protested by destroying mining equipment and other activities. They were eventually brought down by a Pinkerton detective, and some alleged members had trials and were hanged.
Knights of Labor
1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed
The Wisconsin idea
The governor of Wisconsin (Robert La Follette) introduced many Progressive reforms such as lowering railroad rates which increased rail traffic that benefited both railroad owners and customers.
Ida B. Wells
the lynching of blacks outraged her, an african american journalist. in her newspaper, free speech, wells urged african americans to protest the lynchings. she called for a boycott of segregated street cars and white owned stores. she spoke out despite threats to her life.
The Red Record
by Ida B. Wells, is a one hundred page pamphlet describing lynching in the United States since the Emancipation Proclamation, while also describing blacks’ struggles since the time of the Emancipation Proclamation.
Thomas Dixon
Writer of the popular novel \”the clansmen\”, it described the typical African-American as \”half child, half animal, the sort of impulse, when, and conceit… Of being who, left to his will, roams at night and sleeps in the day, whose speech knows no word of love, whose passions, once aroused are the fury of the tiger
Spanish American War
\”a splendid little war\”, War fought between the US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than 3 months and resulted in Cuba’s independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
U.S.S. Maine
Ship that explodes off the coast of Cuba in Havana harbor and helps contribute to the start of the Spanish-American War
William Hearst
Wrote for, and owned, the New York Journal. He was Pulitzer’s rival, and tried to outdo Pulizter in the use of sensational stories and headlines, also known as yellow journalism.
Joseph Pulitzer
The publisher of the New York World, a large newspaper that used yellow journalism to compete for readers and printed many articles about the Cuban revolution, which inspired many to want to help.
Fredrick Remington
sketched concentration camps in Cuba \”You provide the pictures; I’ll provide the war\”
The De Lome Letter
February 1898- One of the factors that led to the Spanish-American War. Newspapers intercepted a letter written by Spanish Ambassador (Depuy de LĂŽme) to Washington. The letter called President McKinley \”weak and bidder for the admiration of the crowd.
The Platt Amendment
cuba required to provide united states with territory for military bases; cuba to repay united states war debts; cuba prohibited from entering into agreements detrimental to united states interests; united states reserved the right to intervene in Cuban affairs that threatened united states interests.
Guantanamo Bay
military base granted to America in Cuba through the Platt Amendment, granted the United States a perpetual lease of the area for \”2000 gold coins a year\”
The Teller Amendment
stated that once Cuba won its independence, the United States would leave the government and control of the island to its people
The Panama Canal
Built to make passage between Atlantic and Pacific oceans easier and faster because there were many Navy ships that needed to get from Gulf of Mexico out to the Pacific to help protect American islands in case of invasion; built by Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, \”Square Deal,\” Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War
Leon Czolgosz
Self proclaimed anarchist, Czolgosz was the son of working-class Polish immigrants who was extremely disaffected by the growing social and economic divide within the United States. He shot President McKinley at the Pan American Exposition in Buffalo, New York on September 6, 1901.
Themes of Progressives
1) Democratization of Government
2)Efficiency – Efficient management of time
3)Regulation of Corporations
4)Impulse towards social justice
Robert M. La Follette
The most celebrated state-level reformer who was elected governor of Wisconsin in 1900. Under his leadership the progressives won approval of direct primaries, initiatives, and referendums. He regulated railroads and utilities, passed laws to regulate the workplace and provided workers compensation, instituted graduated taxes on inherited fortunes, and nearly doubled state levies on railroads and other corporate interests. He greatly widened public awareness of progressive goals.
Muckrakers
This term applies to newspaper reporters and other writers who pointed out the social problems of the era of big business. The term was first given to them by Theodore Roosevelt.
-Jacob Riis
-Lincoln Steffens
-Ida Tarbell
– Upton Sinclair
Achievements of Progressives
1)The Meat inspection Act
2)Pure Food and Drug Act
3)The initative – allowed citizens to introduce legislation at the state level
4)The Referendum – can be used to finance projects
5)The power to recall political figures through petitions
6)16th Amendment – Income taxes 1913
7)17th amendment – direct election of U.S. Senators
8)18th Amendment – Prohibition
9)19th Amendment – Women’s right to vote 1919
Failures of the Progressive Movement
Did not include African Americans for the most part
Corrupt Politicians
Schools Suffered \” —Schooling in late nineteenth century America consisted of a narrow intellectual exercise, where industrialization had a major influence. In addition, the structure of the classroom, the method of instruction, the relationship between teachers and learners were other variables that fostered no creativity.
William Howard Taft
(1908-1912), was endorsed by Roosevelt because he pledged to carry on progressive program, then he didn’t appoint any Progressives to the Cabinet, actively pursued anti-trust law suits, appoints Richard Ballinger as Secretary of the Interior, Ballinger opposed conservation and favored business interests, Taft fires Gifford Pinchot (head of U.S. forestry), ran for re-election in 1912 but lost to Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
Democratic candidate 1912, stood for antitrust, monetary change, and tariff reduction; far less active than Roosevelt, Clayton Anti-trust Act (to enforce Sherman), Child Labor Act
John Hay
secretary of state in the McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt administrations; he was the author of the Open Door Notes, which attempted to protect American interests in China in the early 20th century by asking European countries to pledge equal trading rights in China and the protection of its territory from foreign annexation.
Queen Lilliuokalani
Queen of Haiwaii while Haiwaii was annexed into the United States

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