America: A Narrative History Chapter 6

Flashcard maker : Bettina Hugo
Exeter Riot
Hard-pressed farmers in New Hampshire surrounded the legislative building, demanding that the representatives print paper money to ease their plight
Shay’s Rebellion
Storming of the Massachusetts federal arsenal in 1787 by 1,200 armed farmers seeking debt relief from the state legislature through issuance of paper currency and lower taxes.
Massachusetts
State that three rural counties in the west revolted in 1786
Regulators
Group of armed angry farmers who banded together to force judges and sheriffs to stop seizing the cattle and farms of those who could not pay their taxes
Rhode Island
Refused to participate in the Confederation Congress convention to revise the Articles of Confederation
George Washington
Served as presiding officer at the Federal Convention
James Madison
Drafted the framework for the initial discussions at the Constitutional Convention
The Virginia Plan
Called for a national government with a supreme legislative, executive, and judiciary
Gunning Bedford
Submitted the New Jersey Plan
The New Jersey Plan
Sought to keep the existing structure of equal representation of the states in a unicameral national legislature
Separation of Powers
Strict division of the powers of government among three separate branches (executive, legislative, and judicial) which, in turn, check and balance each other
Great Compromise
Used elements of both the New Jersey plan and the Virginia Plan
Federalism
Concept of dividing governmental authority between the national government and the states
Articles of Confederation
The first form of government for the United States, ratified by the original thirteen states in 1781; weak in central authority, it was replaced by the U.S. Constitution in 1789
Northwest Ordinance
Land policy for new western territories in the Ohio valley that established the terms and conditions for self-government and statehood while also banning slavery from the region
Anti-Federalists
Opponents to the Constitution as an infringement of individual and states’ rights, whose criticism led to the addition of a Bill of Rights to the document; Many later joined Thomas Jefferson’s Democratic-Republican party
The Federalist Papers
Collection of eighty-five essays, published widely in newspapers in 1787 and 1788, written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay in support of adopting the proposed U.S. Constitution
Jeffersonian Republicans
Political party founded by Thomas Jefferson in opposition to the Federalist Party led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams; also known as the Democratic-Republican Party
Bill of Rights
First ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1791 to guarantee individual rights and to help secure ratification of the Constitution by the states
Bank of the United States
National bank responsible for holding and transferring federal government funds, making business loans, and issuing a national currency
French Revolution
Revolutionary movement beginning in 1789 that overthrew the monarchy and transformed France into an unstable republic before Napoleon Bonaparte assumed power in 1799
Jay’s Treaty
Agreement between Britain and the United States, negotiated by Chief Justice John Jay, that settled disputes over trade, prewar debts owed to British merchants, British-occupied forts in American territory and the seizure of American ships and cargo
Whiskey Rebellion
Violent protest by western Pennsylvania farmers against federal excise tax on corn whiskey, put down by a federal army
XYZ Affair
French foreign minister Tallyrand’s three anonymous agents demanded payments to stop French plundering of American ships in 1797; refusal to pay the bribe led to two years of sea war with France (1798-1800)
Alien and Sedition Acts
Four measures passed during the undeclared war with France that limited the freedoms of speech and press and restricted the liberty of non-citizens
Election of 1800
Presidential elections between Thomas Jefferson and John Adams; resulted in the first Democratic-Republican victory after the Federalist administrations of George Washington and John Adams
Mercantilism
National governments exercise tight controls over economic life
Tariffs
Enabled American manufacturers to charge higher prices for their products sold in the United States; penalized consumers, particularly those in southern states that were dependent upon imported goods
Excise Taxes
Taxes on particular products, such as carriages, sugar, and salt
Banks
Would increase the nation’s money supply by issuing currency in amounts greater than their actual reserve-gold and silver coins and government bonds-in their vaults
Report on Manufactures
By Alexander Hamilton; Distributed in 1791, set in place the capstone of design for modern capitalist economy; the active governmental promotion of new manufacturing and industrial enterprises (mills, mines, and factories)
Jacobins
Most radical of the French revolutionaries; executed the king and queen as well as hundreds of aristocrats and priests; promoted democracy, religious toleration, and human rights; supported social, racial, and sexual equality
Reign of Terror
1793-1794; thousands of \”counterrevolutionary\” political prisoners and priests were executed along with many revolutionary leaders
Edmond-Charles Genet
French ambassador to the United States
The Virginia Plan
Included three branches of government (legislative, judicial, executive); bicameral legislature
The New Jersey Plan
Kept structure of equal representation in a unicameral legislature
House of Representatives
Represents voters at large; the elected every two years
Executive Branch
Chief diplomat; Commander in Chief of armed forces; responsible for implementing laws
Legislative Branch
Divided into Congress and the House of Representatives
Judiciary Branch
Supreme Court headed by Chief Justice; interprets laws and ensures citizens receive equal justice
Senate
Represents state legislatures; elected every six years; protects the minority
General Mad Anthony Wayne
Led troops into the Battle of Fallen Timbers after the British transferred Ohio country to the US without consulting the Indians living there
Treaty of Greenvile
Signed in August 1795; the United States bought most of the territory that would form the state of Ohio and the cities of Detroit and Chicago
Treaty of San Lorenzo
Thomas Pinckney convinced the Spanish to accept a southern boundary in west Florida and allow Americans to ship goods down the Mississippi River to New Orleans
Land Act of 1796
Congress doubled the price of federal land to $2 per acre
Washington’s Farewell Address
Criticized the rising spirit of political partisanship and the emergence of political parties; advised America to avoid permanent alliances with European countries
The Naturalization Act
Lengthened the residency requirement for citizenship from five years to fourteen
The Alien Acts
Empowered the president to deport dangerous aliens
Alien Enemies Act
Authorized the president to expel or imprison enemy aliens during wartime
The Sedition Act
Outlawed writing, publishing, or speaking anything of a false, scandalous, or malicious nature against the government or its officers
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Denounced the Alien and Sedition Acts as infractions of Constitutional Rights
Judiciary Act of 1801
Intended to ensure Federalist control of the Judiciary system by creating sixteen federal circuit courts, with a new judge for each, and reducing the number of Supreme Court Justices
Federalist Essay Number 10
Argued that the size and diversity of the United States would make it impossible for any single faction to dominate the federal government
The Wealth of Nations
Written by Adam Smith; Declaration of independence from Great Britain’s mercantilist system

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