Aging Ch18 online quiz, Book

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Among the brain areas most important to long-term memory are the _________ lobes and the ______.
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temporal; diencephalons
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Which has not been associated with helping prevent or delay the onset of Alzheimers disease?
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aspirin Estrogen, advil and motrin are being looked at in clinical research to help the onset of alzheimers.
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_________ is the ongoing inability to form new memories.
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Anterograde
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It is estimated that by the year 2050, _________ will make up the largest number of elderly ethnic minorities.
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Hispanic Americans
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__________ is/are just as likely to occur in young people as in the elderly.
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Amnestic disorders
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As much as ________ percent of people over the age of 85 will develop some form of dementia.
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50
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___________ is an inherited progressive disease in which memory problems worsen over time, along with personality changes, mood difficulties, and movement problems such as severe twitching and spasms.
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Huntingtons disease
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Alzheimers disease can only be diagnosed with certainty by means of a/an:
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autopsy.
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Twisted protein fibers are found within the cells of the ____________ and other brain areas of people who died from Alzheimers disease.
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hippocampus
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Which sleep disorder, which is more common among older adults than younger ones, is particularly problematic to elderly people because of the contribution of medical ailments, pain, taking medication, and struggling with stress or depression?
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insomnia
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When new information is acquired and stored, _________ are produced in key brain cells.
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proteins
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What percentage of all prescription drugs are taken by elderly people?
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30
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Lisa Mosconi and her colleagues at the New York University School of Medicine have developed a special type of ___________ that may predict dementia and Alzheimers disease before symptoms develop.
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PET scan
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At any given time in the United States, only about _____ percent of the elderly population actually live in nursing homes.
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5
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Among the most important structures in short-term memory are the __________ lobes.
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Prefrontal
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The field of psychology that is dedicated to the mental health of the elderly is called:
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Geropsychology
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The sleep disorder in which a persons own sleep-wake pattern is mismatched with the sleep-wake schedule of most other people is:
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circadian rhythm sleep disorder
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What is the most correct statement about anxiety disorders in later life?
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Individuals over 85 have higher rates of the disorder than those between 65 and 84.
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Symptoms of which disorder have been found to lessen in later life?
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Schizophrenia
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People over ___ represent the fastest-growing segment in the U.S. population.
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80
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______________ can take a heavy toll on the close relatives of people with dementia.
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Caregiving
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Which of the following is true of older women and men?
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Older women outnumber older men by 3 to 2.
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The symptoms of vascular dementia:
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begin suddenly
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Clinicians now recognize that one of the most important aspects of treating Alzheimers disease and other forms of dementia is to focus on:
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the emotional needs of the caregiver
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______________ is associated with chronic alcoholism.
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Korsakoffs syndrome
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Which group has the highest rate of depression?
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Aged people living in nursing homes
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Drugs used to treat dementia prevent the breakdown of __________ in the brain.
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acetylcholine
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Problems in memory and related cognitive processes occurring without organic causes are known as:
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dissociative disorders
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The most common form of dementia is:
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Alzhiemers
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_______ is a slowly progressive neurological disorder marked by tremors, rigidity, and unsteadiness, and can cause dementia in 20 to 60 percent of cases.
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Parkinsons disease
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Which of the following statements is true with regard to suicide and the elderly?
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The rate of suicide of white American men over the age of 85 is more than five times that of the overall suicide rate in the United States
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The ________ explanation or theory for Alzheimers disease is linked to the resemblance of Alzheimers disease to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.
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Viral
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Which group of older persons has the highest rate of problem drinking?
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patients in nursing homes
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Which of the following is not true of the oldest old, or those above the age of 95?
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They often do more traveling than those in their 80s and early 90s. What is TRUE is They are on average more healthy, clear-headed, and agile than those in their 80s and early 90s. ,They are often still employed, and They are often still sexually active.
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Which of the following illnesses is least likely to develop in later life?
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Schizophrenia
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Failure to diagnosis _______ may contribute to a high rate of death for older people with the disorder.
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delirium
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__________ has been found to be clinically and biologically similar to mad cow disease.
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Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
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Neurologist Oliver Sacks has studied the therapeutic role of _______ in treating patients with memory problems.
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Music
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______________ have been said to slow the cognitive decline of people suffering from dementia.
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Assisted Living Facilities
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Between ________ percent of elderly people eventually will be placed in a nursing home.
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25 and 30
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Is depression the same as with the elderly and the young, at about 20%?
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yes, except it climbs with the elderly who are in nursing homes as opposed to the elderly who are living in the community.
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What is “microsleep”?
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when people who have been awake for over 200 hours they will fall asleep for for 2-3 seconds.
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what percent of the time does a person eyes move rapidly during sleep, known as rapid eye movement (REM)?
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25% of the time.
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What is another name for REM sleep?
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Paradoxical sleep because it resembles both deep sleep and wakefulness.
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What happens during REM?
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Depsite small movements and muscle twitches the body is immobilized, almost paralyzed. The eyes ar darting back and forth, blood flow to the brain increases, and brain wave activity is almost identical to that of an awake and alert perosn.
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What does 80% of the people who are awakened while in REM sleep say?
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They were dreaming
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What is “dyssomnias”?
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these are sleep orders that include insomnia, hypersomnia, breathing related sellp disorder, narcolepsy, and circadian rhythm sleep disorder, that involves disturbances in the amount, quality, or timing of sleep.
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What are the “parasomnias”?
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they are the nightmare disorder, sleep terror disorder, and sleepwalking disorder that involve abnormal events that occur during sleep.
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What is insomnia?
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it is the most common dyssomnia. it is when people have trouble falling and staying asleep. they feel as though they are constantly awake.
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What can cause insomnia?
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anxiety, or depression, medical problems, pain or meds.
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What percent of the elderly experience insomnia?
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at least 50% over 65 yrs.
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Why do the elderly have insomnia?
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medical problems, pain, meds, depression, or anxiety.
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What is sleep apnea?
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breathing related sleep disorder, where a person is periodically deprived of oxygen to the brain while sleeping so tehy frequently wake up. 10% of elderly, less common in younger folk.
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How long can over wieght people with apnea stop breathing for?
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30seconds.
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What is a common sleep problem with the elderly and young folk?
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Hypersomnia
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What is hypersomnia?
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when a person needs more sleep.
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What is Narcolepsy?
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Sleep disorder marked by repeated sudden bouts of REM sleep while they are awake.
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Is narcolepsy biological or psychological?
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The disorder itself is biological but it is usually triggered by bouts of emotions. They may fall asleep during an argument or a football game.
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What is circadian rhythm sleep disorder?
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When people experience excessive sleepiness or insomnia as a result of a mismatch between their own sleep wake pattern and the sleep wake pattern schedule of most other people in their environment.
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What is a nighmare disorder?
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this is the most common of the parasomnias. this is when people have lots of nightmares and it becomes distressful and they have to get treatment. Usually increases under stress.
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What is sleep terror disorder?
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when a person awakens suddenly during the first third of their evening sleep, screaming in extrme fear and agitation. they are in a state of panic, and are often incoherent, and have a heart rate to match.
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Who has sleep terrors and how prevelant are they?
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About 6% of young children have sleep terrors and they usually get better during adolescence.
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What is sleepwalking disorder?
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when people repeatedly leave their beds an dwalk around, without being conscious of teh the episode or remembering it later. the episodes occur in the first third of the persons nightly sleep.
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Who usually sleepwalks?
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Children
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What happens if someone is awakened during sleep walking?
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they usually are confused but if left asleep they typically will return to their beds. they can have accidents.
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Does substance abuse usually increase or decrease after the age of 60?
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decrease but they may take their medications inappropriately, or be perscribed many more meds.
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What do widowed men suffer with more than widowed women?
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Depression and other psychological disorders, and physical illnesses.
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After being widowed what percent of women are in a new relationship?
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by 2 years after 19% are in a new relationship, and 5% are remarried.
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After being widowed what percent of men are in a new relationship?
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61% are in a new relationship, 25% are remarried
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What are two of the psychotic disorders that are more prevelant in elderly vs younger folk?
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Delirium and dementia.
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What age is referred to the oldest old?
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95 years old.
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Do all people 95 and older suffer cognitive disorders?
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No, these individuals are on an average more healthy, clear headed, and agile than those in their 80’s and early 90″s. More than half remain perfectly alert.
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What does the oldest old still do with their time?
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they are employed, sexually active, and able to enjoy the outdoors and the arts, but do not travel much.
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How do people get delirium?
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Fevers, diseases and infections, poor nutrition, head injuries, strokes, and stress. but it is reversible.
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How does a doctor treat delirium?
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by treating the underlying cause, such as the infection.
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Do all peole get correctly diagnosed with delirium when they go to the doctor?
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No, one study found only 1 of 15 cases where diagnosed
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What is delirium?
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a rapidly developing clouding of consciousness; the person has great difficulty concentrating, focusing attention, and following an orderly sequence of thought.
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What is dementia?
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a syndrome marked by severe problems in memory and in at least one other cognitive function.
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What is alzheimers?
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the most common form of dementia, usually occurring after the age of 65.
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What do people with dementia suffer from?
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memory loss and other cognitive functions such as abstract thinking or language. some may have personality change, behave inappropraitely and the symptoms steadily get worse over time.
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What % of the world suffers with dementia at any given time?
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3-9% says the book. 65 and over it is 1-2% by age 85 it is 50%
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What % of dementia does alzheimers account for?
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2 thirds of all dementia cases are diagnosed as alzheimers.
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When can the onset of alzheimers take place?
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Can happen in middles age with early onset., but most cases are after age 65, late onset. and increases with age.
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How might an alzheimers person behave after time?
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As time goes on they begin to not understand their limitations, they begin to withdraw from others during late stages, become more confused, wander, poor judgment, lose knowledge of the past, fail to recognize objects and faces, take naps.
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What cause the death of someone with alzheiers?
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As their mental functions go down they slow down and lay around more, which makes them more prone to physical ailments such as pneumonia which can result in death. It is responsible for 71,000 deaths per year, and is the 7th leading cause of death in the country.
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What are neurofibrillary TANGLES?
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twisted protein fibers that form within brain cells as people age, but alzheimers have an abundance of these tangles.
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What are senile PLAQUES?
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sphere shaped deposites of beta-amyloid protein that form in the spaces between certain brain celss and certain blood vessels as people age. Alzheimers have an abundance of these.
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What are the genetic causes of alzheimers?
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Plaques and tangles. It is genetic.
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Which is more affected by alzheimers, procedural or declarative memory?
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Declarative.
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What part of the brain works with short term memory?
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Pre frontal lobes
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What part of the brain works with long term memories?
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temporal lobes including the hippocampus and amygdala and the diencephalon which contains the hypothalamus, thalamus, and mamillary bodies.
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Where do the plaques and tangles take place?
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In the hippocampus and other parts of the brain.
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What is Korsakoff”s Syndrome?
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caused by alcohol and it is an amnestic disorder that causes forgetting newly learned info, anterograde amnesia.
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What is retrograde amnesia?
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forgetting recent memories
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What is anterograde amnesia?
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inability to form new memories.
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What causes vascular dementia?
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Also known as multi-infarct dementia, usually caused by a stroke when blood flow is cut off to part of the brain.
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What is Picks disease?
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a rare disorder that affects the frontal and temporal lobes, and looks like alzheimers but the two diseases can be distinguished at autopsy.
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What are declarative memories?
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(sometimes referred to as Explicit memory) is one of two types of long term human memory. It refers to memories which can be consciously recalled such as facts and events.
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What is Huntingtons disease?
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An inherited progressive disease where memory problems worsen over time, along with personality changes, and mood difficulties. Also includes severe severe twitching and spasms. Children have 50/50 chance of getting it.
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What is Parkinsons disease?
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slow progressive neurological disorder marked by tremors, rigidity, and unsteadiness that can cause dementia.
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What is the last least common form of dementia?
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Infectious diseases, AIDS HIV, Meningitis, and advanced syphilis and brain seizure disorder by drug abuse or toxins.
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What is the main reason alzheimers patients go to inpatient care?
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Caregivers cant deal with it anymore
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What are some of the mental health issues facing the elderly?
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Discrimination, requiring outside long term care, younger folk taking a look at investing in long term elderly care for themselves.
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Aphasia definition
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Language problems, difficutly with language, may not comprehend what you say or what they say.
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Agnosia (face) definition
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Trouble recognizing objects or faces.
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Apraxia definition
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Trouble with motor skills, like making all the steps to get a glass of O.J.
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Echolahia definition
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Repeats back what you say to them, the echo what you say.
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Perseveration definition
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Repeats things over and over again, just when you think you have moved on they are bringing it up again.
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What biological chemicals are responsible for the productions of proteins?
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Acetylcholine Glutamate Calcium RNA (ribonecleic acid)
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By blocking what chemical can block the production of short term memories?
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Glutamate
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By blocking what chemicals blocks the forming of long term memories?
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Calcium or RNA
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What are some of the toxins found in nature that may be linked to alzheiers?
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Zinc Lead
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How is zinc and lead linked to alzheimers?
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High levels of zinc may trigger clmping of the beta-amyloid protein, similar to the plaques found. Lead from gas back in the 60’s-70’s inhaled from exhaust from cars.
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Another explanatoin for alzheimer’s is Autoimmune theory, what is this?
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Irregularities found in the immune system.
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People with Autoimmune theory, with the changes in the brain cells that effect the immune system have autoimmune response, what is this?
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When the immune system attacks itself, which leads to alzheimers.
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Another explanation for the cause of alzheimers is Viral theory, what is this?
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A virus in the brain.
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What is Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease,
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Another form of dementia caused by a slow acting virus and this virus may lead to Alzheimers, Virally caused and includes spasms of the body. the virus is slow acting.but it must be said that no such virus has been found in the brains of Alzheimers.

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