advertising procedures test 2

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marketing plan
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document that serves as a guide for the present and future marketing activities of an organization
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mission statement
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short description of organization’s purpose and philosophy reminds planners & mktg partners what the organization is and what it stands for
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situation analysis
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detailed description of brand’s current marketing situation part of marketing plan
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SWOT analysis
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uses facts contained in situation analysis to point out strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for the brand
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marketing objectives
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part of marketing plan clear, quantifiable, realistic marketing goals that are to be accomplished within a defined time period sales-target objective or communication objective
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sales-target objective
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goals related to increasing or maintaining sales volume and market share
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communication objective
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outcomes that can reasonably be associated with promotional activities: increases in brand recognition/awareness increased comprehension of brand’s attributes/benefits more positive attitudes about a brand/favorable image stronger intentions to try or buy a brand
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DAGMAR
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system for defining advertising goals for measured advertising results emphasizes communication objectives awareness, comprehension, conviction, and action
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marketing strategy
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how company plans to meet its marketing objectives 1. define particular target markets 2. determine strategic position 3. develop appropriate marketing mix for each target market
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approaches for developing position strategy
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1. product attribute 2. price/quality 3. use/application 4. product class 5. product user 6. product competitor 7. cultural symbol
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tactics
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determine specific short-term actions to be taken internally, externally, by whom, when
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bottom-up marketing
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tactics > strategy > results
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subliminal advertising
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advertisements with messages supposedly embedded in illustrations just below threshold of perception
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IMC plan
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natural outgrowth of the marketing plan prepared in similar way directs companies advertising effors
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IMC objective
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declares what the marketer wants to achieve with respect to consumer awareness, attitude, preference
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IMC strategy
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blends elements of creative mix describes how to reach objective
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creative mix
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target audience product concept communications media advertising message
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target audience
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specific people IMC will reach
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product concept
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bundle of values marketer presents to consumer consumer’s perception of a product as a bundle of utilitarian and symbolic values that satisfy functional, social, psychological, and other wants/needs
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communications media
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all vehicles that might transmit the marketer’s message
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IMC message
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what company plans to say, how it plans to say it verbally and nonverbally
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percentage of sales method
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IMC budget based on % of last year’s sales, anticipated sales for next year, or combo of both simple, cost-free, related to rev, considered safe
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share of market method
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share of voice method attempt to link promotional dollars with sales objectives best chance of maintaining company share of a market is to keep a share of IMC somewhat ahead of market share
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objective/task method
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budget buildup method treats IMC as marketing tool for generating sales 1. define objectives 2. determine strategy 3. estimate cost
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empirical research method
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runs series of tests in different markets with different budgets to determine best level of advertising expenditure
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market segmentation
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identifying groups of people with certain shared needs and aggregating these groups into larger market segments according to their interest in the brand’s utility large enough to target reachable
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behavioristic segmentation
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grouped by buying behavior determined mostly by user status, usage rate, purchase occasion, benefits sought first step to identify likely prospects for mktg efforts
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user status
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segmentation sole users, semi-sole users, discount users, trial/rejectors, aware non-triers, repertoire users
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repertoire users
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perceive two or more brands to have superior attributes and will buy at full price
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volume segmentation
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measure people’s usage rates to define consumers as light, medium, or heavy users 20% of all users consume 80% of the product
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usage rates
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extent to which consumers use a product light, medium, heavy
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purchase occasion
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distinguished by when they buy or use a product/service affected by frequency of need, fad, or season
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benefits
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segmented gratifications or relief from problems offered by a particular brand, product, or service
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benefit segmentation
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prime objective of many consumer attitude studies basis for many successful ad campaigns
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symbolism
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motivation for customers what the brand means to them, to associates, or to some social reference group
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geographic segmentation
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one region has needs, wants, and purchasing habits that differ from other regions
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demographic segmentation
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define population groups by statistical characteristics age, sex, ethnicity, education, occupation, income, etc.
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geodemographic segmentation
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demographic and geographic
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psychographic segmentation
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group people by values, attitudes, personality, lifestyle view people as individuals with feelings/inclinations
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VALS
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psychographic segmentation values, attitudes, and lifestyle assigns consumers to one of 8 groups based on primary motivation and resources
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primary motivation
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achievement, ideals, or self-expression pattern of attitudes and activities that help people reinforce, sustain, or modify their social and self-image
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business marketers
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industrial marketers manufacturers, government agencies, wholesalers, retailers, banks, institutions that buy goods and services to help them operate
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resellers
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middlemen businesses that buy products from manufacturers or wholesalers and then resell the merchandise to consumers or other buyers
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NAICS codes
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North American Industry Classification System codes U.S. Census Bureau classifies all US bus
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primary demand trend
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projection of future consumer demand for a whole product category based on past demand and other mkt influences
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target marketing process
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determines look, content, feel of advertising assessing various market segments, designating certain ones as the focus of mkt activities, designating mkt mixes to communicate with and make sale to targets
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target market
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group of segments the company wishes to appeal to, design products for, and tailor its marketing activities toward
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four Ps
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product price place promotion
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product element
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start of marketing mix good or service being offered and values associated with it
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product life cycle
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position in plc influences target market selected and type of advertising used
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early adopters
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willing to try new things
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primary demand
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consumer demand for the whole product category, not just company’s own brand
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introductory phase
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pioneering phase company incurs considerable costs for education customers, building widespread dealer distribution, encouraging demand costs are highest profits are lowest
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pull strategy
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promotion activities aimed at inducing trial purchase and repurchase by consumers
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sales promotion
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direct inducement offering extra incentives all along the marketing route to accelerate the movement of the product from the producer to consumer
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push strategy
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promotion activities aimed at getting products into the dealer pipeline and accelerating sales by offering inducements to dealers, retailers, and salespeople
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growth stage
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sales vol begins to rise rapidly rapid market expansion more competitors, first companies to enter market show best reward
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maturity stage
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market saturated with competing products and number of new customers dwindles competition intensifies profits diminish increase promotional efforts, emphasize selective demand
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selective demand
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consumer demand for particular advantages of one brand over another
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decline stage
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may cease all promotion and phase products out quickly fade slowly with minimal advertising
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service
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bundle of intangible benefits that satisfy some need or want temporary in nature usually derive from completion of a task
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equipment-based service
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relies mainly on use of specialized equipment
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people-based services
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relies on creative talents and marketing skills of individuals
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position
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own a word that ranks the product in prospect’s mind way in which product is ranked in consumer’s mind by benefits it offers, way its classified/differentiated, or by relation to certain target markets
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perceptible differences
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readily apparent to consumer
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hidden differences
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not readily apparent need IMC to inform consumers
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induced differences
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distinguishing characteristics of products effect through unique branding, packaging, distribution, merchandising, and advertising
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brand
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combination of name, words, symbols, or design that identifies the product and its source and distinguished it from competing products
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media planning
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conceive, analyze, and creatively select channels of communication that will direct advertising messages to the right people in the right place at the right time
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audience objectives
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specific types of people the advertiser wants to reach media planners usually use geodemographic
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media vehicles
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particular magazines or shows selected on how well it delivers or exposes the message to the media audience most closely resembling target consumer
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distribution objectives
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where, when, and how often advertising should appear
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circulation
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statistical measure of a print medium’s audience
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RPC
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readers per copy variable used to determine the total reach of a given print medium multiplied by number of vendor and subscriptions sales to determine total audience size
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message weight
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total size of audience for a set of ads or an entire campaign gives idea of the scope of the campaign in a given market expressed by gross impressions and gross rating points
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advertising impression
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possible exposure of advertising message to one audience member OTS
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OTS
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opportunity to see advertising impression possible exposure of an ad message to one audience member
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gross impressions
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total of all audiences delivered by a media plan
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rating
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percentage of homes/individuals exposed to an advertising medium
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TVHH
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TV households
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GRPs
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gross rating points adding ratings of several media vehicles message weight of a given advertising schedule
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reach
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total number of unique/different people or households exposed, at least once, to a medium during a given period of time
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frequency
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intensity of a media schedule, based on repeated exposures to the medium or the program
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continuity
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duration of an ad message/campaign over a given period of time
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effective reach
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quality of exposure measures number/percentage of audience who receive enough exposures for message to be truly received
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effectived frequency
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average number of times a person must see or hear a message before it becomes effective
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advertising response curve
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studies indicate that incremental response to advertising actually diminishes, rather than builds, with repeated exposure
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recency planning
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most advertising works by influencing the brand choice of consumers who are ready to buy suggesting continuity of advertising is most important
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five Ms
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markets money media mechanics methodology
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markets
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various targets of a media plan trade/consumer audiences global, national, regional audiences ethnic, socioeconomic groups other stakeholders
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media
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all communications vehicles available to a marketer
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mechanics
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dealing creatively with available advertising media options
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methodology
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overall strategy of selecting and scheduling media vehicles to achieve the desired message weight, reach, frequency, and continuity
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BDI
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brand development index sales potential of a particular brand in a specific market area
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CDI
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category development index determines potential of the whole product category
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spillover media
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local media that many consumers in a neighboring country inadvertently receive
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programmatic advertising
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computers make decisions about what ads are inserted in what content providers advertisers bid for audiences willingness to pay and demographic match
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audience
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total number of people or households exposed to a medium
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exposure value
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only relates to the medium value of a medium determined by how well it exposes an ad to the target audience
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attention value
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relates to advertising message and copy and medium consideration in selecting media based on degree of attention paid to ads in particular media
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motivation value
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consideration in selecting media based on medium’s ability to motivate people to act positive factors: prestige, good quality reproduction, timeliness, editorial relevance
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CPM
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cost per thousand
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cost efficiency
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cost of exposing the message to the target audience rather than to the total circulation
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CPP
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cost per point
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mixed-media approach
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combination of media
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synergy
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effect achieved when sum of the parts is great than expected from simply adding together individual components
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continuous schedule
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advertising runs steadily and varies little over the campaign period
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flighting
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alternates periods of advertising with periods of non
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pulsing
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mixes continuous and flighting
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bursting
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running same commercial every half hour on the same network during prime time
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roadblocking
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buying air time on all 3 networks simultaneously
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blinking
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scheduling technique advertiser floods airways for one day on both cable and network to make it virtually impossible to miss the ads
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individual brand
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brand for each product
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family brand
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marketing diff products under same umbrella name
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licensed brands
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companies pay a substantial fee for the right to use another company’s brand name
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brand equity
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totality of what consumers, distributors, dealers feel and think about the brand over an extended period of time
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copy points
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copywriting themes
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direct distribution
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companies sell directly to end consumers or users
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network marketing
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multilevel marketing individuals act as independent distributors for a manufacturer or private-label marketer
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distribution channel
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all firms and individuals that take title, or assist in it, to the product as it moves from the producer to consumer
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intensive distribution
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goods available at every possible location minimal buying effort profit on each unit is low, volume of sales is high
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selective distribution
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limit number of outlets manufacturers cut distribution and promotion costs
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exclusive distribution
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selected wholesalers or retailers are granted exclusive rights to distribute a particular product
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VMS
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vertical marketing system centrally managed distribution system that serves a group of stores or other bus
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franchising
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retail dealers pay a fee to operate under the guidelines and direction of the parent company or manufacturer
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communication element
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all marketing-related communications between seller and buyer
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direct marketing
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like taking the store to the customer control, cost efficiency, accountability
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collateral materials
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many accessory items companies produce to integrate and supplement their advertising or PR activities booklets, catalogs, brochures, films, etc.
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marketing research
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systematic procedures for gathering, recording, and analyzing new information
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IMC research
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uncovers info needed for making IMC decisions systematic gathering and analysis of info to help develop or evaluate message strategies, individual promotions, and whole campaigns
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IMC strategy research
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seek info about creative mix: product concept, target audience, communication media, creative message
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media research
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IMC research subscribe to syndicated research services that monitor and publish info on reach and effectiveness of media vehicles
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pre-testing
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increase likelihood of preparing most effective messages
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post-testing
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tracking provides marketer with useful guidelines for future advertising
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media classes
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broad media categories – print, electronic, digital interactive, direct mail, out-of-home
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media subclasses
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newspapers/magazines, radio/tv
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media vehicle
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particular publication or program
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media units
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size or length of an ad
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MIS
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marketing information system sophisticated set of procedures designed to generate a continuous, orderly flow of of info for use in making marketing decisions
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informal research
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exploratory learn more about market, competition, and business enviornment
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primary data
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info collected by agency/company about a specific problem expensive and time-consuming
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secondary data
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information previously collected or published, usually for another purpose readily available
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qualitative research
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get general impression of market, consumer, product insight into population and subject matter
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quantitative research
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i.e. survey hard numbers about specific marketing solutions
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projective techniques
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unearth people’s underlying or subconscious feelings, attitudes, interest, opinions, needs, and motives
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intensive techniques
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in-depth interview focus group
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UX
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user experience testing
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UPC
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universal product code increases speed and accuracy and checkout read codes with optical scanners tell which products are selling and how well
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clutter tests
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test commercials shown with noncompeting control commercials to determine effectiveness, measure comprehension and attitude shifts, and detect weaknesses
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attitude test
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measure campaigns effectiveness in creating favorable image for company, brand, or products
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recall test
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reveal effectiveness of message components measure what respondents noticed, not whether they actually buy the product
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inquiry test
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consumers respond to an offer for information or free sames
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validity
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results of a test have to be free of bias and reflect true status of the market
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reliability
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must be repeatable produce approx the same result each time its administered
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sample units
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individuals, families, companies being surveyed
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random probability samples
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greatest accuracy everyone has equal chance of being selected
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nonprobability samples
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easier, less expensive, less time consuming no guarantee sample is representative, not everyone in universe given a fair chance

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